El Pastor de noche buena.

[Mexico, por la viuda de Bernardo Calderon, 1644].


FIRST EDITION? 8vo. ff. (xxv) 139 (iv). Roman letter, little Italic. Very slight marginal foxing to a few ll., clean tear just touching printing along gutter of N3 and at foot of N6. A good, fresh copy in contemporary Mexican limp vellum, yapp edges, two of four ties, title and shelfmark ‘N.2’ inked to spine, a.e.r.

A fresh, clean copy, in a contemporary Mexican binding, of (probably) the first edition of this influential mystical work, produced by the important printing press of Paula de Benavides, widow of Bernardo Calderón. By 1644, Juan de Palafox y Mendoza (1600-58) had been Bishop of Puebla de los Angeles for 4 years, whilst also occupying the offices of Archbishop of Mexico (1640-2) and Viceroy of New Spain (1642). He was keen on promoting scholarly and spiritual education, as he founded monasteries and schools, and, in 1646, the Biblioteca Palafoxiana, the first public library in the Americas. Indeed, ‘El Pastor’ was intended for the use of the nuns in Puebla, as a finely written ‘brief manual on how to practice virtue and how to easily recognise vice’. Written at Christmas 1643—the ‘Noche Buena’—it presents a ‘pastor’ (Palafox) meditating on the mystery of Christ’s birth, suspended between literature, allegory and mysticism. An angel appears to him and leads him through an allegorical journey in the castles of Deceit and Disillusion, during which he encounters theological personifications and reflects on appearance and reality. The manual, Palafox explains, served to enhance the spiritual education of the nuns, so that, ‘inside the cloisters, they may serve God with gentleness, follow him with purity and love him with finesse’. This edition includes a dedication to Queen Isabel of Bourbon, and the ‘imprimatur’ of two bishops of the Americas.

The bibliography of the work’s early editions is foggy. Whilst Palau (n.209.629) mentions only a ‘dubious’ Barcelona edition of 1644, Medina puts the first, and only, 1644 edition in Mexico; however he could not confirm if it was printed in Puebla or Ciudad de México, as the copy did not have a t-p or imprint. The edition he saw was thus not ours, which bears the Viuda’s imprint. Therefore, two editions were probably printed in Mexico in 1644, of which priority has not been established. The layout of the earliest Spanish editions, e.g., Madrid 1645 and Valencia 1646/48, reprised closely that of the Viuda’s, as ‘all [European] editions followed as their model the one approved by the Venerable Bishop’ (Bib. Novohisp., I, 576).

The ‘Viuda’ Paula de Benavides took over the business upon the death of her husband, Bernardo Calderón. Between 1640 and 1684, she ran one of the most successful printing workshops and bookshops in Ciudad de México. In 1640-1, she regained the privilege, once granted to her husband, of printing very remunerative schoolbooks and dictionaries.

Only UCLA, JCB and Illinois copies recorded in the US.

Sabin 58300; Simon 3762; Iberian Books 51680; Medina, México, 586: ‘No podría asegurar si esta edición es de Puebla o si salió de las prensas de México.’ Not in Palau. A.C. Montiel Ontiveros et al., ‘Paula de Benavides: impresora del siglo XVII’, Contrib. d. Coatpec 10 (2006), 103-15;


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SANDOVAL, Prudencio de


Historia de la vida y hechos del emperador Carlos V, primera parte. [with] Historia de la vida y hechos del emperador Carlos V…parte segunda.

Pamplona, Bartholomé Paris…a costa de Pedro Escuer, 1634


Folio. 2 vol. pp. (xxviii) 895 (xxxi) (with) (iv) 898 (xiv), without engraving of Charles V in vol. 2. Roman letter, with Italic, mostly double column, t-p in red and black. Woodcut arms of Charles V to t-ps, full-page engraved portrait of Charles V to verso of e4 in vol. 1, decorated initials and headpieces, armorial tailpieces. Varying degrees of age browning, vol. 1: spotting to first gathering, faint marginal waterstaining in a few places, tiny worm trail to upper blank margin of 4z4-5c4, vol. 2: lower outer blank corner of 2f1 torn, clean tear to 4v2 touching letter. Good copies in contemporary Spanish straight-grained crimson morocco, double gilt ruled to a panel design, raised bands, spine in four double gilt ruled compartments, gilt lettering, little worming and minor repair at head and foot, inscription ‘estas (?) de este libro stan registradas (?) (?) se vendan juardan de la casa (?) (?) (?) deside Junio 1654 Vano dia 5’ to verso of t-p, occasional early marginalia.

Handsomely bound copies of the two parts of this monumental history of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, including extensive accounts of the conquests of Mexico and Peru.

Prudencio de Sandoval (1533-1620) was a Benedictine monk, a historian and the bishop of Tuy and Pamplona. His most famous works are encyclopaedic saints’ lives and histories of the kings of Spain, which are considered fundamental historical sources to this day. The first part of the ‘Historia…del emperador Carlos V’ was published in 1603 and the second in 1614, when the first was also reprinted. Like Sandoval’s other works, it featured ample references to and the reproduction of epigraphic material and documents, e.g., the edict of Worms, some of which are no longer extant. Vol. 1 begins with a genealogical overview of Charles V’s ancestry. The historical narrative begins in 1500, the year of Charles V’s birth, an event anticipated by prophetic overtones. The ‘Historia’ analysed the splendour achieved through difficulties in C16 Spain, at a moment in which Habsburg pre-eminence was in decline. In addition to the Emperor’s life and the annals of his reign, it provides accounts of the Ottoman wars, relationships with other states and exploration, including a long section on the discovery and conquest of New Spain by Hernando Cortes in 1519 (I, 159-90) and those of Peru (I, 680-92 and II, 529-38). The work discusses approximately one year and a half of Charles V’s reign in each chapter; vol. 1 ends in 1528, vol. 2 spans the years 1528-53.

An elegantly bound monument to the glorious days of the Habsburg Empire. According to Palau, the printer Pedro Escuer from Zaragoza added the date 1634 to the t-p of several copies of the 1614 edition printed in Pamplona (Palau 297147, 1614 ed.). Of a total of 9 and 7 copies of the 1614 and 1634 editions respectively, which we have been able to consultor for which collation was available, nearly fifty per cent do not have the vol. 2 engravings. Its absence appears to be a variant.

Brunet V, 124; Palau 297147: ‘sólo consistía en cambio de portada de la de 1614’; Alden 634/121; Sabin 76426: ‘contains accounts of the conquests of Mexico and Peru.’ Not in BM STC Sp.


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Renuncia que hizo la Religion de nuestro Padre S. Francisco…… en la Nueva España é Islas Filipinas.

Toledo? 1645?


FIRST and ONLY EDITION. Folio. 4 pp., added blanks. Roman letter, a little Italic. A clean, crisp and well-margined copy in half red morocco C1900, gilt title and decorative motifs to banded spine in compartments, rubbed.

A very rare copy of this important document on the Franciscan missions in the New World and Asia when the order was the largest in Europe and Spain the driving force of Catholic expansion. Following the military campaigns of conquest in the sixteenth century, the order of Friars Minor Observant assumed the task of controlling the indigenous people overseas by cultural conversion. Not only was the Franciscan order involved in the evangelisation of Mexico, Yucatan and Florida, but it also played an important role in the establishment of a trans-Pacific commercial and religious network connecting the Spanish Americas with the Philippines and Japan.

The Renuncia was written by the General of the Franciscan order in Toledo (Convent of San Juan de Los Reyes) on the 9th of June 1645 and addressed to the King of Spain. The first part highlights the historical importance of the Franciscan order in the evangelisation of the Indians of America, describing the first expeditions to Mexico (1524) under Fernand Cortez, the martyrdoms and foundation of the early Mexican Church – blessed by the Spanish Crown – which set the strategies for conversion, particularly the pivotal roles of education and building. The language is allegorical with symbols and metaphors from Scripture and the Gospels. For instance, the New Spain is represented as the “vineyard” to which God has summoned the friars to labour among new plants.

There follows the declaration of the General of the order surrendering – for himself and the order (after 124 years) – all their tasks, rights and properties in New Spain (New Mexico, Florida, Guatemala and Yucatan) and in the Philippines, according to an apostolic bull of 1622, though allegedly issued against the Pope’s will and obtained by “sinister means”, to the great trouble of the order and disturbance of the Indians. Claiming recognition for the Franciscans’ labours and honour for their martyrs, the General asks the King of Spain to send ships to return the Franciscans to the motherland and to prepare an inventory of goods and properties belonging to their convents built thanks to the munificence of the Crown and of believers. Interesting is the reference to Japan, the kingdom of an infidel ruler and a land of tribulation, where Catholics were always persecuted and the evangelisation cost many lives.

Only the Huntington copy recorded in the US. Not in USTC. Not in Goldsmith. Alden 646/67; Medina (BHA), 6807; Sabin 69643.


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Litterae annuae provinciae Paraquariae Societatis Jesu

Antwerp, Jean van Meurs, 1636.


FIRST EDITION. 8vo., pp. 168. Roman letter; few decorated initials; one blank corner of repair to title page, some age browning, occasional lateral underlining in red pencil. A good copy in contemporary vellum, early title inscription on spine and shelfmark on front cover, all edges red; lightly worn joints; front pastedown and endpaper from eighteenth-century Spanish manuscript letter; on title, two nineteen- and twenty-century library stamps and contemporary inscription ‘Del Diacceti Mon…bro’, probably member of the Florentine noble family; early account note on rear end paper verso.

First edition of this remarkable report from the Jesuit missions in Paraguay. Nicola Mastrilli (1568-1653), from Naples, was a prominent churchman of the New World. After joining the Jesuit order, he was sent to Peru, where he changed his surname into Durán and graduated at the University of Lima. He distinguished himself as a zealous preacher, directing in Juli (Bolivia) the first Jesuit mission deeply engaged with the evangelisation of the local population. In 1623, he was elected supervisor of the province of Paraguay and then of the whole Peru. His care for the Indians was all but common among the Spanish establishment and was questioned even by some members of his order.

These letters, addressed to the general of the Society, Muzio Vitelleschi, recorded the fast expansion of Jesuit activities in the southern region of the Spanish Viceroyalty, mainly between 1626 and 1627. They were written on Mastrilli’s behalf by his confrere and collaborator, the Belgian Jean Rançonier. As other contemporary reports from the Americas and the Levant, the letters met immediate success and were translated into French two years later.

Alden, 636/37; Medina, BHA 953; Sabin, 21407; Palau, 77442.


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Sanctum Provinciale Concilium Mexici.

México, Juan Ruiz, 1622.


FIRST EDITION. Folio, ff. (6), 102, (1), 38, (1), missing final blank. Neat Roman letter; title with full-page engraved architectural border (outer edges frayed), secondary title within large woodcut frame, large decorated initials and elaborate hand- and tail-pieces in Spanish colonial style; light mostly marginal foxing to few leaves, light damp stain to lower gutter and foot of last gathering. A very good copy in contemporary limp vellum; a bit stained, reglued long since, spine holed; early shelf mark to front cover; unusual early monogram ‘AE LC OC’ branded on upper and lower edges; small “MM” ink stamps on verso of title and f. 52r; eighteenth-century handwritten monogram [RHPB?] at foot of first five leaves, the same hand annotating in Spanish in margins of gathering Hh and Kk; earlier extensive marginal annotations in Latin on first two leaves.

Extremely rare first edition of the decrees issued by the third Mexican Council of 1585 and approved by the papacy four years later. Gathered by the Viceroy and Archbishop Pedro Moya de Contreras, this highly influential assembly brought the decrees of the Council of Trent into the religious and social life of the New World, drawing up a legislation in use until the early twentieth century. Bishops attending the Council focused mainly on doctrine, the internal organization of the Mexican province, missionary activities and the rights of local people.

Their decisions were first recorded in Spanish and later translated into Latin, so as to be confirmed by the pope. Yet, the Roman cardinals’ committee in charge of approval rewrote a large part of the decrees, strictly sticking to those of the Tridentine Council. As a result, the final official text came out only in 1622. The printed marginalia of the volume refers constantly to the sources of the Mexican decrees. Along with canon law and papal bulls, they comprise the deliberations of the Council of Trent, of the five Synods held in Milan under Carlo Borromeo, as well as assemblies of the American and Spanish Church in Lima, Quiroga, Guadix and Granada. The final part of the book, and perhaps the most important, is devoted to the statutes of the recently-established Mexican Church.

The beautiful engraving of the title shows the personification of Faith and Church in a classical architectural frame. It is signed at the bottom by the Dutch artist Samuel Stradanus. Stradanus worked in New Spain from about 1604. His most prominent patron was the promoter of this belated first edition, Archbishop Juan Pérez de la Serna (1573-1627), whose arms appear at the head of the title.

Graesse, II, 245; Medina, México 343; Palau, 293978; Sabin, 48373. Not in JFB or Alden.


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ACOSTA, José de


De natura novi orbis … et de promulgatione Evangelii apud babaros.

Cologne, officina Birckmannica, 1596.


8vo., pp. (16), 581, (3). Roman letter, little italic. Jesuit device on title; slightly yellowed, occasional oil mark in margins; tiny burn mark affecting one letter on p. 1 and 373; few unprinted words completed in contemporary manuscript and later pencil at bottom of pp. 126 and 274. A good copy, in an early seventeenth-century English brown calf, blind-tooled plain style, probably Cambridge, multiple ruled borders with saw tooth edge, double fillet, central undecorated frame with fleurons at corners; a bit scratched and worn; rebacked, spine part remounted, all edges red; pastedowns from an early Roman letter edition of the King James Bible (2nd Maccabees, III, 1-21 and III, 25-40; IV, 1-2).

Third unaugmented edition of these pioneering treatises on the geography, anthropology and evangelisation of South America, previously published in Salamanca in 1588/ 1589 and 1595. José de Acosta (1540 – 1600) was among the first Jesuit missionaries to embark for the Spanish New World. He spent much of his life in Peru. The main settlement of the order was at that time in the village of Juli, on Lake Titicaca. Here, a college was set up to study the languages of the natives, while the newly-funded Jesuit printing press issued the first printed book of the Americas in 1577. Later, Acosta moved to Lima and taught theology at the university.

In the Third Council of Lima (1582 – 1583) reorganising the American church, Acosta took a very active part and became its official historian. Following an adventurous journey through Mexico, in 1587 he head back to Spain, where he was appointed head of the Jesuit college in Valladolid and later Salamanca. A prolific writer, he is mostly famous for his very successful Historia natural y moral de las Indias. This knowledgeable, realistic and detailed description of the New World was sought after and soon translated into Italian, French, German, Dutch and English. The Natura novi orbis opening this edition represents the early draft of the Historia. In it, Acosta provided the first account of altitude sickness, which affected him while crossing the Andes. He also divided the Amerindians into three categories, acknowledging the Incas and Aztecs as fairly advanced societies in the civilisation process.

The second part comprises a very innovative essay on evangelisation. Acosta struggles to demonstrate to his contemporaries that Amerindians were part of the original God’s plan for mankind and thus were not inferior creatures undeserved of being Christianised and saved. In grounding his argument, the idea that the first inhabitants of America migrated from the biblical world (specifically from Asia), played a crucial role. Indeed, he was the first writer to postulate the existence of a land bridge at the northern or southern extremities of the two continents, long before the discovery of the Bering Strait. In his missionary zeal, Acosta was much concerned with the preparation and morality of priests, who he encouraged to study the aboriginal languages as an essential part of their duties.

‘One of the earliest writers who have treated philosophically of America and its production.’ J. Sabin, A Dictionary of Books Related to America, I, p. 17.

BM STC Ger., p. 2; Adams, A 124; Brunet, I, 41; Graesse, I, 15; Leclerc, 4; Palau y Dulcet, I, 1979; Sabin, I, 120. Not in JFB nor in Alden.


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La prima parte dell’Istorie del Peru.

LOPEZ DI GOMARA, Francesco. Historia delle nuove Indie Occidentali.

LOPEZ DI GOMARA, Francesco. Historia di Don Fernando Cortes.

Venice, Camillo Franceschini, 1576.


8vos. i) (xii)] 215 (i) Italic letter, woodcut printer’s device to title page, large historiated woodcut intials. Title page repaired in gutter, very small tear to blank lower edge narrow repair to mid-foredge and upper outer corner, repaired clean tear to last touching device without loss. ii) ff (viii) 306. Italic letter, woodcut printer’s device to t-p, woodcut initials. Slight age yellowing, very occasional foxing, contents leaf torn without loss in gutter. iii) ff. (viii), 343. Italic letter. Printer’s device on title, large historiated woodcut initials and headpieces. Very light age yellowing. Good copies in crushed crimson modern morocco, panel ruled in triple-blind with gilt corner fleurons and gilt-stamped border, 3 ornaments to central panels. Spines gilt in 5 compartments with classical motifs of harps, columns and figures, a.e.r. In marbled box.

i) Pedro Cieza de León (1518-1584) served in the Indies under Pizarro and lived for 17 years in Peru. His ‘Istorie’ is based on this long stay and his travels from place to place in the “Great Kingdom”. Divided into 122 chapters it begins with the discovery of the Indies and the foundation of Panama, then describes historical events and geographical characteristics of the various provinces which Cieza visited, and offers a fascinating account of the habits of the indigenous peoples. “One of the more important sources for the early history of Peru. The author describes Peru’s resources, vegetation and Indian tribes from personal experience, and also comments on Spanish administration of the region” JFB C256 on the second edition. Cieza never published a sequel to this ‘Prima Parte’ (though according to Sabin p.73 it exists in ms.). Nonetheless, these two related essays by the Spanish-American historian Francisco Lopez de Gomara are habitually treated as the second and third parts, the first being a history of the Western Indies, the second of Mexico.

ii) Important early essay by Spanish-American historian Lopez de Gomara on the history of the New West Indies, “covering the discovery, early exploration and first settlement of the New World by the Spaniards,” (Sabin on 1564 ed). Beginning with a discussion of the nature and location of the ‘Antipodes’ – meaning those places on the opposite side of the world – the text moves on to discuss the life and times of Christopher Columbus and a wealth of information on the religions, customs, geographies and appearance, of i.a. Honduras, Cuba, Venezuela, Peru and Nicaragua. The text discusses the division of territories between the Spanish and the Portuguese, the lives and achievements of the principal conquistadors, conflicts and allegiances with the natives including the Incas and reports mass deaths amongst the local population due to the introduction of alien germs such as smallpox. Although Francisco López de Gómara (c. 1511-1566) never actually visited the New World, through his close acquaintance with Cortés and leading conquistadors he had unparalleled access to first-hand testimony and documentary sources making this work “indispensable to the student of Spanish affairs after the conquest” (Sabin) and a prime resource for 16th century Latin-American history.

iii) Continuation of Gomara’s history of the West Indies, dealing primarily with the conquest of Mexico and focused on the personality of Hernán Cortés, leader of the Spanish expedition. Cortes’ audacious adventures against Montezuma’s Mexican empire from 1518 onwards aroused great interest in his native Spain, and won rich and extensive colonies for Charles V. The work contains a considerable amount of biographical, anthropological and topographical information, in addition to a detailed and lively account of Cortes’ voyage and campaigns against the Aztecs, culminating in Spanish dominance over the former Aztec Empire. It concludes with a Nahuatl vocabulary and some general information on Aztec social customs, religious practices and cosmographical theories.

i) “One of the most remarkable literary productions of the age of Spanish conquest in America” (Markham) “the only book which exhibits the physical aspect of the country as it existed under the elaborate culture of the Incas” (Prescott II.328) in Sabin vol. 3-4 p.72. Sabin vol. 3-4 p74: “inconnue aux bibliographes.” BM STC It. 184. This ed. not in Alden or JFB. Medina I:257. Palau 54649.

ii) BM STC It. 184. Sabin vol 7-8, p.130. JFB L489: “This edition follows closely the text of the 1564 edition.” Alden I 576/19. Palau 141181. Medina I:270-71. Streit II:931.

iii) BM STC It. 184. Sabin vol 7-8, p.130. This ed. not in JFB. Alden I 576/20. Palau 141174. Medina I:271. Streit II:932.


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Historia dell’India America detta altramente Francia antartica, di M. Andrea Tevet tradotta di francese in lingua iataliana, da M. Giuseppe Horologgi

Venice, Gabriel Giolito de’Ferrari, 1561.


FIRST EDITION thus. 8vo. pp (xxxii) 363 (iii). (lacking last blank) Italic letter. Woodcut device on title, head of title with woodcut ornament, larger device on recto of last leaf, charming historiated woodcut initials, headpieces and ornaments, “FF. 300 de Giovanni Romani da Casalmaggiore an 1780” on fly “De Capuccin di Casalmaggiore” in slightly earlier hand, in lower blank margin of title. Age yellowing, some browning to a few leaves, minor marginal foxing in places, minor occasional marginal water-stains, the odd marginal ink stain and thumb mark. A good copy, in contemporary vellum over boards, manuscript title on spine, small slit to vellum on spine.

First edition of the Italian translation by Giuseppe Horologgi of Les Singularitez de la France Antarctique, first published at Paris in 1557, a most important first hand account of Thevet’s journey to Brazil. Thevet, a Franciscan, accompanied Villegagnon on a French expedition in 1555 to establish a colony on the coast of Brazil. This important narrative of that unsuccessful venture contains one of the earliest descriptions of tobacco and its use by the Indians, as well as descriptions of Peru, Cuba, and Canada, the latter account derived from Jacques Cartier. Giolito reissued this translation in 1584. An English translation appeared in 1568. Thevet’s first travels occurred in about 1550, when he accompanied the Cardinal Jean de Lorraine on a journey into Italy and the Mediterranean basin. His experience as a traveler attracted the attention of Nicolas Durand, Chevalier de Villegagnon, who was preparing to found a colony in what is today Brazil. He asked Thevet to accompany the expedition as its confessor. Thevet fell ill during the voyage and had to return to France after only ten weeks in Brazil. Using his own observations, however, combined with information gained from other travelers, Thevet quickly produced his ‘Singularitez de la France Antarctique’ on his return. Thevet writes here in detail of that attempt to form a colony, and includes vivid descriptions of the manners and customs of the natives whom he met. It seems probable, however, that his accounts of North America, which form a large portion of this book, and which he claims are based on first hand knowledge, derived mainly from conversations with Jacques Cartier, Sebastian Cabot, and the Sieur de Roberval. Nevertheless he gives one of the earliest descriptions of Canada, one of the earliest accounts of Newfoundland and Labrador, and one of the earliest discussions of the customs and ceremonies of the Indians, including a marvelous description of tobacco-smoking (p. 333). André Thevet traveled extensively and wrote prolifically. Few sixteenth-century writers covered more territory or wrote more ambitiously. While today Thevet is seen largely as a compiler and editor of experiences that belonged to others, his work on Brazil remains important to those studying the first encounters with the New World. A good, unsophisticated copy of this important work.

BM STC It C16th p. 668. Sabin 95336. Brunet V: 814: “Cette traduction ne se trouve pas facilement”. Church 112. Borba de Moraes II, p. 858. Alden 561/52. Arents 9. Mcgill 833 (Fr. edn.)


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NIEREMBERG, John Eusebius


Historia Naturae Maxime Peregrinae.

Antwerp, Plantin, Balthasar Moretus, 1635.


FIRST EDITION. Folio pp. (viii) 502 (cvi), last blank, text in double column. Roman letter, some Italic and Greek. Title in red and black with Plantin’s finely engraved device, woodcut compass device on verso of last, woodcut initials and tail pieces. Text illustrated by 69 beautiful woodcuts, 54 of animals and 15 of plants, often signed C.I., autograph “Labouritte 1778” on pastedown, the initials ‘M M’ with shelfmark beneath, early C18th library stamp “Ex Musaeo J. P Borin” beneath that, contemporary manuscript ex libris “R. L. M. Colleg soc.tis Jesu Mons” at head of title page. General even browning (as usual), some light mostly marginal water staining in places, the odd spot or mark. A good copy, in contemporary vellum over boards, stubbs from an early antiphonal leaf, corners and extremities a little worn.

First and only edition of Niermberg’s important and encyclopaedic natural history, devoted for the most part to the flora and fauna of the New World, and particularly Mexico. There had been earlier accounts of the natural history of the New World, mostly in passages of travel books, but this was the first attempt to order them, and can properly be described as the first American Natural History. Many species are described or illustrated here for the first time, and in supplying the indigenous names for the plants and animals described, the work is an important linguistic source for the Nahuatl language of the Aztecs. There is also much information on the culture and rites of the Aztecs and Incas, and of Mexico before the conquest.

Nieremberg’s sources are various but it seems certain that much of this work is derived from manuscripts brought back by Francisco Hernandez, who had made a large compendium of Aztec flora and fauna, using a group of Aztec artists and draughtsmen. This work is all the more important in that the original drawings were destroyed along with a large part of the famous library at the Escorial, and perhaps the charm of the boldly stylised illustrations reflect their manuscript origin. The woodcuts were made by the Flemish artist Christoffel Jegher who worked as Ruben’s engraver and extensively for the Plantin-Moretus publishing house. They include the raccoon, rattlesnake, dodo, toucan, birds of paradise, water lily, coconut tree, cactus, iguana, amongst others, a great deal of them in their first representation in a printed work.

The text is scientifically organised by genus: plants, fish, birds, minerals etc. with much technical observation of animals, minerals, and plants and their properties. There is also a chapter on tobacco and its therapeutic use. The book ends with two fascinating chapters on Nieremberg’s observations on miraculous events in Europe and the Holy Land, followed by an extensive and very useful index. Nieremberg was a noted theologian and prolific writer, born of German parents in Madrid in 1595, who taught humanities and natural history for sixteen years at the Imperial College, having joined the Society of Jesus in 1614. His writings on occult philosophy and natural magic were influential. The book is dedicated to Gaspar de Gusman, Count of Olivares, Grand Chancellor to the Indies.

Palau 190738. Brunet IV pp. 76 “on y trouve des particularités importantes qui n’étaient pas encores connues alors.” Sabin 55268 “the greater part of this work relates to the natural history of Mexico, or New Spain, it also contains some particulars relative to Mexico before the conquest”. Wellcome 4546. Nissen (2 vol.) 2974. Arents 3278. Pritzel 6701. Alden 635/94. Not in JFB.


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