SAINT GERMAN, Christopher

Saint German, Christopher. The fyrste dyalogue in Englysshe, wyth newe addycyons. London, R. Wyer, 1531. [with]. Saint German, Christopher. The secunde dyalogue i[n] englysshe wyth new addycyons. London, in Southwarke by Peter Treueris, 1531. [with]. Saint German, Christopher. Here after foloweth a lytell treatise called the newe addicions. [London] Thomas Bertheletus regius impressor excudebat, anno domini. 1531.


8vo. 3 works in one volume. 1) ff. lxxviii [ii] 2) ff. 166, [vi]. 3) ff. 22 [ie 32] leaves ;  8. Black Letter. Woodcut royal arms on first title-page, small woodcut on verso of last of St. John the Evangelist with xylographic ‘Robert Wyer’ below, small woodcut initials some white on black, small woodcut of Christ and the trinity on verso of last page of text in second work, title of third part within woodcut border, ’Will Stamfold’ in contemporary hand at head of t-p, another below, ‘John Thrower of ..’ in early hand on verso of last, contemporary note partially rubbed out on verso of last of second work (small hole just affecting on letter on verso) ‘John Colinye’ in later hand below, C19th mss ex dono to Mr Samuellson on fly. Very light age yellowing, first title very slightly dusty, light marginal stain or spot in a few places. Very good copies, crisp and clean in seventeenth century speckled English calf, covers double blind ruled to a panel design, blind fleurons to outer corners, initials GB gilt stamped at centres, rebacked, spine with raised bands gilt ruled in compartments, a.e.r.

Rare second edition in English of an extremely important work in the history of English law. First published in 1528 as Dialogus de fundamentis legum Anglie et de conscientia, St German’s influential dialogue between a Doctor of Law and a student was first published in English in 1530. The present edition (the second), further revised, is bound with the similarly revised second edition of the Second dialogue first published by Treveris at the end of November 1530. The work is an investigation of the inter-relationship between the foundations of English law and conscience, cast in the form of an exchange between a doctor (or teacher) and a student. This form is kept in the English translation. ‘The New addicions’ printed by Berthelet form a separate piece, and these thirteen chapters are concerned with parliament’s jurisdiction in spiritual matters.

“Christopher Saint Germain was a legal writer and controversialist, born about 1460, was educated at Oxford, as a member, it is said, of Exeter College. He then entered the Inner Temple, where he studied law and was called to the bar. As a rule Saint-German avoided politics, and confined himself to legal and literary work, and to the collection of a library which exceeded that of any other lawyer. In religious matters Saint-German was a moderate reformer. Saint-German is, however, chiefly remembered as author of ‘Doctor and Student,’ a handbook for legal students, which was not superseded until the appearance of Blackstone’s ‘Commentaries.’ This work was first issued by Rastell in 1523 in Latin, under the title ‘Dialogus de Fundamentis Legum et de Conscientia.’ Herbert possessed a copy, but none is now known to be extant. Another edition was published by Rastell in 1528. An English translation, entitled ‘A Fyrste Dialoge in Englysshe,’ was brought out in 1531 by Wyer, and a ‘Second Dialoge in Englysshe’ was published by Peter Treveris in 1530. Both these were printed in 1532 ‘with new addycions’. Subsequent editions were numerous.”DNB

The Dialogue “was of enormous importance. It appeared just before the secularisation of the Chancery by Henry VIII, and emphasised and preserved those rules of equity derived from canon law in a format readily understandable by common lawyers and all learned men. In so doing, it laid the foundation for English equity jurisprudence. Although St. German was technically a common lawyer, his work was influenced by civilian ideas both through and apart from the obvious canonist influences. St. German may also have been influenced by the continental Bartolists, who tested the rules of the secular civil law with cases of ‘conscience’. He attempted to do the same with the English common law as applicable ‘secular’ law. The result was a pioneer excursion into comparative law and a brilliant attempt to analyse the legitimate sources of English law.  St. Germain was firmly patriotic, anti-clerical and conservative; but, unlike Littleton, he boldly and critically analyzed the sources of the English national law. His object was mutual reinforcement between custom and reason, nationalism and learning. His true heir would be Francis Bacon” Daniel R. Coquillette. ‘Comparative Studies in Continental and Anglo-American Legal History’.

A very good copy of this rare and important work complete with all three parts.

1) ESTC S104738. STC 21562. 2) ESTC S104655. STC 21566. 3) ESTC S110793. STC 21563.


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WILBYE, John [with] YONGE, Nicholas



WILBYE, John. The first set of English madrigals to 3.4.5. and 6. voices: newly composed by Iohn Wilbye. [Bassus] London, Printed by Thomas Este, 1598.


YONGE, Nicholas. Musica transalpina. Madrigales translated of foure, five and sixe parts, chosen out of divers excellent authors, with the first and second part of La Verginella, made by maister Byrd, upon two stanza’s of Ariosto. [Bassus] London, By Thomas East, the assigné of William Byrd, 1588.


FIRST EDITIONS. Two works in one. 4to. 1) [ii], XXX. A-D. 2) ff. (ii) LVII (i) A² A-G (without last blank). Woodcut type notation, Roman letter. Both titles within typographical border with small woodcut ornaments, floriated and historiated woodcut initials in second work, full page woodcut arms of dedicatee Gilbert, Lord Talbot on verso of second title. Light even browning in both works, first t-p and verso of last dusty, small waterstain to blank lower outer corner of first few leaves, minor waterstain in places, rare mark or spot. Very good original copies, entirely unsophisticated in original limp vellum, upper cover with BASSUS stamped in black, lower cover stamped with B above with monogram WR separated with a heart at centre, holes for ties, a little soiled and stained, a little loose in binding, in fldg. box.

Very rare first editions of these madrigals, both of them bass parts, remarkably, and exceptionally rarely, preserved in their original vellum; this is of particular importance as it shows exactly how the work would have been used at the time. If you sang bass you would only have needed the bass parts. Most extant copies of such works have collected various parts together and have been rebound for reference, not for use. The first work is the first collection of Madrigals by Wilbye and the second is an important collection of madrigals that include works by Byrd, Donato, Lassus, and Palestrina amongst many others.

“It is through his madrigals that Wilbye (1574–1638), who spent most of his life in comparative obscurity as a domestic musician, is known. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2001) describes him as ‘one of the finest English madrigalists’. Meanwhile, the Tudor music specialist Edmund Horace Fellowes yet more superlatively stated that Wilbye was ‘regularly acknowledged to be the greatest stylist of the Elizabethans’ (introduction to his edition of the First Set of Madrigals). He also asserted him to be ‘one of the greatest figures in English Music’ (The English Madrigal Composers, 2e, 1948, p. 221). Wilbye wrote in all styles to a high standard. Yet more importantly, he established the serious madrigal as a recognised form of composition. Wilbye published 64 madrigals in all, the 30 here (1598) and the rest in his Second Set of Madrigales (1609). They are written for between three and six voices. .. For the book historian, the volume is also interesting for its publisher, Thomas Este, or East (1540–1608). From 1587 onwards, East specialised in music printing and publishing. He edited music carefully and was faithful to the intentions of the composers. He was ‘the’ madrigal printer of his time, having printed the Musica Transalpina in 1588 (the first printed collection of Italian madrigals with texts translated into English), most of the following collections of ‘Englished’ Italian madrigals of the time, and the works of many of the Elizabethan madrigalists. Both William Byrd and, later, Thomas Morley sometimes employed him. As well as printing the work of established composers, East invited young, up-and-coming composers to his press – one of who was Wilbye.” Dr Karen Attar ‘Senate House Library.’

“The most important formative influences on Wilbye’s music were Morley’s canzonet manner and, to a lesser extent, the madrigalian idiom of Alfonso Ferrabosco… The most marked influence of Morley is to be heard in the three-voice pieces that open Wilbye’s First Set of English Madrigals (1598). Here Wilbye already shows a firm command of Morley’s facile canzonet style, generating fluent little paragraphs that are as polished as they are unenterprising. Signs of Ferrabosco’s influence may be most clearly discerned in certain of the five-voice works of this collection, with their more staid expression and counterpoint. Lady, your words doe spight mee actually uses a text already set by Ferrabosco (in Yonge’s Musica transalpina, 1588), and is the only example of Wilbye’s borrowing some musical material from an earlier setting. The best of the five-voice pieces is Flora gave mee fairest flowers, a far more canzonet-like piece, whose clearcut paragraphs and specially sprightly conclusion contrast sharply with the amorphous counterpoint and relatively neutral expression of its companions.” David Brown in Grove Music Online.

“Yonge was the editor of two anthologies of Italian madrigals published, with English texts, as Musica transalpina in 1588 and 1597. The first contains 57 pieces (including an English version of La verginella by Byrd with a new second part, and four settings of French texts) by 18 composers, of whom the most liberally represented are the elder Ferrabosco and Marenzio. In 1583 and 1585 Pierre Phalèse of Antwerp had issued three madrigal anthologies which not only provided the model for Yonge’s venture, but also afforded him a quantity of Italian madrigals by minor Flemish composers (19 pieces came from these three sources). Yonge’s 1588 collection was a direct result of the growing English enthusiasm during the 1580s for Italian madrigals. He explained that most of the English translations had been made in 1583 by ‘a Gentleman for his private delight’. ..Yonge’s 1588 volume was the most influential of the five volumes of Italian madrigals in translation to appear in England between 1588 and 1598.” David Brown in Grove Music Online.

1) ESTC S101316 STC 25619. Hirsch III, 1150. RISM W1065. 2) ESTC S120284 STC 26094. RISM Recueils Imprimés XVIe-XVIIe Siècles 1588-29.

1) Folger (4 copies), Princeton, Illinois (2 copies).

2) Folger, Harvard, Huntington, Lib Congress, Texas


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DIGGES, Thomas, DIGGES, Dudley


Foure paradoxes, or politique discourses. 2 concerning militarie discipline,

London, By H. Lownes, for Clement Knight, 1604.


FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. [iv], 111, [i]: pi², A-O. Roman letter, some Italic. Small woodcut printer’s device on title, floriated woodcut initials, grotesque woodcut head and tail-pieces, typographical ornaments. Light age yellowing, title dusty,  chipped at lower outer blank corner, a little dust soiling at margins of first few leaves, minor marginal dust soiling in places, the rare marginal stain. A good copy, with good margins, in modern three-quarter red calf, spine with raised bands, title gilt lettered, all edges yellow.

Rare first edition of this important work on the state of the English militia, probably a source for Shakespeares’ Coriolanus. “As Digges died in 1595 there was an interval of at least nine years between the writing of  ‘Paradoxes 1. and II.’ and their printing. These are filled with complaints of the dishonesty of officers. Foreign writers, too, were making similar accusations, notably Marcos de Isaba, who, in the ‘Cuerpo enfermo de la Milicia Espanola’, waxes very bitter on the subject. Both in English and foreign armies, officers, from the commander in chief to the captain of the band, where engaged in defrauding one another and the private soldiers. If the men clamoured for pay, license for pillage quieted them, or, in some cases, a still surer remedy was found; generals when deep in debt to any troops would send them on some desperate service, wherein most of them were sure to perish. Four pages of Paradoxes I are devoted to a comparison between a good and a bad paymaster; and much of Paradox II to another between modern discipline and the discipline of the Greeks and Romans. Digges maintains the former, ‘In spite of the late invention of gunpowder,’ to be vastly inferior to the latter, and he cites thirty points of difference between the two systems in support of his views. Indeed the English militia had become so inefficient as to make reform imperative. Captains, being paymasters of their own bands, made use of their position to pocket the mens’ pay; drill was neglected, and no dependence could be placed on soldiers, who, taken from the lowest class, thought nothing of running from the enemy. Smythe, though an opponent of Digges, corroborates these statements. Digges was a reformer, and certainly a good friend to the private soldier;.” Cockle.

“In 1604 a volume was published entitled ‘Four Paradoxes, or Politique Discourses’, containing two essays by Thomas Digges, and two by Dudley Digges, his son, and the stepson of Shakespeare’s testamentary overseer. One of Dudley’s essays is in praise of the soldiers profession. In the other he argues ‘That warre sometimes’ is ‘less hurtfull and more to be wisht in a well Governd state than peace’. War, he declares, is better than ‘luxurious idleness’… With this may be compared the dialogue on the advantages of war in Coriolanus IV. v.. Digges proceeds to discuss the use of war as a means of curing internal dissensions, his main example being the story of Coriolanus taken directly from North’s Plutarch, though with the insertion of one phrase from Livy. … we cannot be sure that Shakespeare had read ‘Foure Paradoxes’, though he might have done so out of neighbourly interest. In Coriolanus he uses the metaphor of breaking out in three places, though his use of it is not confined to this play. … Although, therefore, Shakespeare could have developed his conception of the play from Plutarch’s lives, Digges may well have contributed to the atmosphere of the play with his praise of the military hero, his claim that the ‘discommoditie of our long peace opprest by luxurie’ is ‘worse farre than warrre’, and his retelling of the Coriolanus story as an example of the way foreign wars can be used to cure sedition.” Kenneth Muir. ‘The Sources of Shakespeare’s Plays.’

ESTC S109705 STC 6872. Cockle 77.


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Vox militis: foreshewing what perils are procured where the people of this, or any other kingdome liue without regard of marshall discipline

London, By B[ernard] A[lsop] for Thomas Archer, 1625.


FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. [xiv], 18, 21-58 [i.e. 56]. A-I, complete except for final blanks I3+4. Roman letter, some Italic. Woodcut initials, typographic ornaments. Light age yellowing, title slightly dusty, some marginal spots. A good copy, clean, with good margins in C19th three quarter green morocco over combed marble paper boards, title gilt in long on spine.

A rare work, a call to arms against the Spanish and Holy Roman Empire in Europe, an adaption of a work by Barnabe Rich, first published in 1578, reworked to conform with contemporary events. Rich’s second book, ‘Allarme to England’ sought to rally support, moral and financial, for England’s soldiers. Here George Marcelline adapts the work particularly in relation to Count Ernst von Mansfeld attempts to raise money and men for the attempt to recover the Palatinate. The work is dedicated to Mansfield. In 1624 Mansfield paid three visits to London. James I, the father-in-law of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, was anxious to furnish his needs for the recovery of the Palatinate, but it was not until January 1625 that Mansfeld and his army of “raw and poor rascals” sailed from Dover to the Netherlands

“The death of James I in March 1625 and the accession of Charles I did little to change the fortunes of war for the English. Charles inherited his fathers chief minister, George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham, and both men were eager to lead the country in a war against Spain, particularly after the embarrassing collapse of the Spanish match and the return of Charles and Buckingham from Madrid in 1623. That return led to the ‘Blessed revolution’, the sea change in English foreign policy that saw a renewal of the old animosity between London and Madrid and the declaration of war against Spain in 1624. The decision to go to war with Spain was greeted with cheers by those who felt Jameses government would now put its full backing behind any military operations against the Spanish, thereby avoiding the debacles that marked the expeditions commanded by Vera and Mansfield. George Marcelline summed up the concerns of many in his Vox Militis (1625), a reprinting of Barnabe Rich’s Allarme to England (1578), that warned that the English lived ‘without regard of Militarie discipline’ and were being forced to stand and behold their friends in apparent danger ‘almost subverted by there enemies unjust persecution and yet with hold[ing] their helping hand and assistance’. Marceline, who dedicated his treatise to Mansfeld, wished to resurrect the reputation of the English soldier, which by this time had taken a beating. Yet his hopes, and those of the nation, were dashed once again when another foray to the continent in 1627, this time in support of the Danes, also faltered.” David R. Lawrence. The Complete Soldier: Military Books and Military Culture in Early Stuart England.

A very good copy of this rare work.

ESTC S115890. STC 20980. Cockle 105.


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NEADE, William

The Double-Armed man, by the New Invention: briefly shewing some famous Exploits atchieved by our Brittish Bowmen: with severall Portraitures

[London], [by Miles Flesher] for I. Grismand, at the signe of the Gun in Pauls Alley, 1625. [with]

Obiections against the vse of the bovv vvith the pike: and the answers thereunto.

[London : printed by W. Jones, ca. 1630]


FIRST EDITION. Two works in one. 4to. 20 unnumbered leaves. A-E. 1 large folding sheet. Roman letter some Italic. Full page woodcut to title, 6 full-page woodcuts of bowmen and pikemen, with printed folding leaf at end, ‘Obiections against the vse of the Bow with the Pike: And the Answers thereunto” with large woodcut headpiece, (one tear restored with loss of letters, other unrestored without loss) historiated woodcut initials, woodcut headpieces and typographical ornaments, gilt leather armorial bookplate label of Henry Huth (1815-1878) and his son Alfred Henry Huth (1850-1910). Light age yellowing, rare very minor marginal spot, small hole restored in lower blank margin of last leaf. A fine copy, in handsome nineteenth-century, straight grained morocco, covers bordered with a gilt rule, title gilt in long on spine, edges and inner dentelles gilt, a.e.g.

A very good copy, with the rare folding sheet ‘Obiections against the vse of the bovv vvith the pike: and the answers thereunto’, of this beautifully illustrated and most interesting work. Neade’s ‘double-armed man’ carried a hybrid pike-cum-bow which he proposed would be a more efficient weapon than the pike on its own. “A year before the publication of this work, Neade presented the manuscript to Charles I, who commanded that the author should exhibit his new weapon in St James’s Park, in his presence; which was done. Neade,, petitioned the king to make the use of his new invention compulsory, and he and his son were shortly after authorised by proclamation to instruct ‘all those who are fit to exercise arms in the use of the weapon: especially the chiefe officers and all others of our Trayned-bands.’ The author commences with a short history of the occasions on which the bow has been successfully employed in battle, and attempts to refute the objections which had been made against it. His opinion of gunpowder, may be gathered from the following passage: ‘Amongst all which, Bartholdus Swart, the Franciscan Fryer, with his most devillish Invention of Gunpowder, is the most damnable, and from hell itself invented.’ He gives the range of an arrow at from 18 to 20 score yards, and says that six of them could be discharged in the time it took to load and fire one musket. The chief advantage of his combination of bow and Pike was that pikemen, by using their bows, would be able to take part in the preliminary actions of a battle, where before they have been lookers-on only. When the enemy had approached to within about six score yards, the bow was to be fastened to the pike and the ranks closed. If attacked by cavalry, the first five or six ranks were to charge pikes, whilst those in the rear were to continue discharging the arrows. The bow was fastened to the pike at the place where the latter is shouldered.” Cockle.

“Despite the earlier royal encouragement, Neade’s invention was not taken up, the bow having by this time been ousted from the battlefield by the musket. Neade, describing himself and his son as ‘instructors in archery to the king,’ complained to the king in 1637 that, despite several demonstrations of his weapon, he had exhausted his entire estate of £600 to no avail, and that through the bad example of the City of London, archery was now generally neglected. There was no official response to these pleas and, apart from some references to his book, nothing further is known of Neade or his son.” DNB.

A fine copy, well bound.

1) Cockle 106. ESTC S113129. STC 18416. 2) ESTC S113336. STC 18416.3. Not in Cockle.


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SMYTHE, Sir John

Instructions, obseruations, and orders mylitarie. Requisite for all chieftaines, captaines, and higher and lower men of charge, and officers..

London, By Richard Iohnes, 1595.


4to. pp. [xxxii], 111, 124-220: pi1[=4[par.]2], [par.] – 3[par.], 4[par.]², (-4[par.]2), A², B-Y, 2A-2E. Roman letter, some Italic. Woodcut printer’s device on title, grotesque woodcut headpiece above, woodcut head-pieces and initials, ‘J. W. Baynton Grays Inn’ in C18th hand in lower blank margin of t-p., armorial bookplate Thomas Francis Fremantle, Baron Cottesloe, on pastedown, C19th autograph of Albert Way (1805–1874, English antiquary, and principal founder of the Royal Archaeological Institute) above. Light age yellowing, title a little dusty at margins, closed tear in lower edge of P2, rare minor mark or spot, upper margin a little short. A very good copy in C18th speckled calf, covers bordered with a gilt rule, edges gilt scrolled, rebacked to match.

A reissue, with expanded preliminaries and cancel title page, of ‘Certen instructions, observations and orders militarie’ (STC 22884), by the great contemporary authority on archery, the soldier and diplomat Sir John Smythe. Smythe (1533-1607) gained his military experience as a volunteer in France, the Low Countries and Hungary. Well-read and fluent in Spanish, he was appointed Elizabeth I’s special Ambassador to Spain on the 18 November 1576. After his ambassadorship, Smythe re-entered the political arena as a critic of the English involvement in the Eighty Years’ War in the Low Countries. In 1590 Smythe published ‘Certain Discourses’, a fervent plea for the retention of the longbow as the weapon of choice for the English soldier. Citing both modern and ancient sources, Smythe recalls great victories won by the bow and associates its use with true manliness and English military potency. The book initiated a controversy on the relative strengths of bow and handgun, but it also contained vehement criticisms of the “new disciplinated men of war” who commanded English forces in the Low Countries. “Leicester’s party now used their influence at court to obtain the suppression of the book, and having gained their end, they spread the report that its circulation was prohibited on account of its falsehood and foolishness, and that its author ‘was judged by her Majesty and her council’ to have been for some years in his dotage.” Cockle. Smythe spent the months that followed unsuccessfully petitioning Lord Treasurer Burghley (his occasional patron) to have this suppression reversed. ‘The agitation caused by his first work having subsided’ (Cockle) Smythe issued this second edition of the work, slightly expanded in its preliminaries. Cockle records that from the writings of Smythe and Patten “it is possible to gather a good general state of the army in England in the middle of the sixteenth century… So conservative is the author, that he would reject any man for an archer who should draw his bow with two fingers, after the new fashion, instead of with three, after the old. .. When one considers the imperfections of the fire arms of that age , one can understand how it was that old soldiers like Sir John should be prejudiced in favour of the bow, which had proved so effective in the past.”

Cockle 60. ESTC S117635. STC 22885


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CLOWES, William

A profitable and necessarie booke of observations, for all those that are burned with the flame of gun powder, &c., and also for curing of wounds.

London: Edmund Bollifant for Thomas Dawson, 1596


FIRST EDITION thus. Two parts in one. 4to. [iv], 52, 57-229, [iii]: A-2F. “A revised edition of A prooved practise for all young chirurgians, concerning burnings with gunpowder’, with an enlarged edition of ‘A short and profitable treatise touching the cure of the disease called morbus Gallicus by unctions’. ‘A briefe and necesary treatise, touching the cure of the disease now vsually called lues venerea’ has separate dated title page; pagination and register are continuous.” ESTC. Black letter, some Roman and Italic. Small woodcut ornament on t-p, large royal arms on verso, four full-page woodcut illustrations of surgical instruments and ‘The surgery Chest’ on pp. 136 and 137, woodcut printer’s device on second t-p, Clowes woodcut arms on verso, bookplate of Thomas Francis Fremantle, Lord Cottlesowe on pastedown. First title dusty and a little soiled in outer margins, first quire dusty in margins, mostly marginal water-staining, a little heavier in places, the occasional thumb mark, spot or small stain, lightly browned. A good copy in early C19th calf, covers bordered with a blind rule and scrolled border. Spine hatched in blind at head and tail small repair to head of spine.

Rare and important compendium of the surgical writings, expanded in this edition, of William Clowes (c.1540-1604) which were amongst the most significant of the Elizabethan age. Clowes had been a naval surgeon and accompanied the expedition of the Earl of Leicester in the Low Countries. “William Clowes was the foremost Elizabethan-era military and naval surgeon and an expert on syphilis.. Clowes completed his training at 19 years of age and joined the Earl of Warwick’s unsuccessful venture to Normandy in support of the Protestant cause and its leader the Prince of Condé. The English forces were pushed back into Le Havre and, crowded into the city and poorly supplied from across the English channel, were devastated by a combination of plague and scurvy. Clowes, hampered by a lack of supplies wrote that he found his fingers the best of surgical instruments and scabbards quite satisfactory splints. When the defeated English forces came home, Clowes joined the Royal Navy and served as a surgeon’s mate for the next five years during which time he acquired the experience treating syphilis that resulted in his work ‘De Morbo Gallico’, which he published in 1585. With Queen Elizabeth’s support, Clowes was appointed assistant surgeon to St. Bartholomew’s Hospital in 1576.  .. In 1588, he was named surgeon to the fleet that had gathered to meet the Armada.. His 1581 ‘A proved Practise for all young Chirurgions  Concerning Burnings with Gunpowder and Wounds Made with Gunshot’ was the first book in English that dealt with gunshot wounds in a Naval context. In 1596 Clowes published ‘A profitable and necessarie booke of observations’ a compendium of his extensive surgical and medical experience.” Jack Edward McCallum ‘Military Medicine: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century’.

“Clowes’ most important publication is ‘A profitable and necessarie booke of observations’  .. He indicates in these writings an earnest desire to pass on the benefits of his observations to younger surgeons ‘for the good of my countrymen’ .. In keeping with this purpose, he wrote in English rather than Latin. Like his German contemporaies, Clowes was a wound surgeon, and he makes no mention of elective operative surgery. His observations consist of a series of case reports, dealing chiefly with gunshot wounds or burning with gunpowder. Contrary to widely held early opinion, he did not believe gunshot woounds to be poisoned, although .. he became convinced that it was possible for a bullet to be intentionally smeared with poison before firing. He also describes the experiments he conducted by which he learned that the bullet was not sufficiently exposed to heat, as it was being discharged, to neutralise the poison applied. .. This early application of scientific investigation of a clinical problem is of great interest and merits special attention. .. He .. displayed an open mind and the courage to make independent observations and to profit from them. .. Thus he represents and example of the best type of practical wound surgeon of his time.” Leo M. Zimmerman ‘Great Ideas in the History of Surgery.’

Cockle 56. ESTC S108096. STC 5445.5 Osler 2325 ‘The best surgical writings of his time in English. ..his books are full of pictures of daily life in the reign of Elizabeth.’ Welcome 1507. Durling 971. Morton 2373.


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[UDALL, William. Camden, William.]


The Historie of the Life and Death of Mary Stuart Queene of Scotland.

London, John Haviland for Richard Whitaker, 1624


FIRST EDITION. Folio. pp. [xii], 250, [ii]. A(±A3), B-2H, 2I. Roman and Italic letter, text within box rule. Fine engraved portrait of Mary as frontispiece within roundel, Mary’s arms above, signed: R: Elstrack, title within large woodcut border, epistle signed “Wil. Stranguage” [i.e. William Udall], “One of three imprint variants of this edition. In this state the dedication, with pseudonymous signature, is a cancel.” ESTC. “.Hadinton” in a contemporary hand on title. another autograph erased dated 1651 above, engraved armorial bookplate of Thomas Hamilton (1721-1794), 7th Earl of Haddington, on verso of t-p, contemporary inscription on fly erased, early shelf marks on t-p and and frontispiece. Light age yellowing, very rare spot or mark, t-p fractionally dusty in lower outer margin. A fine, large paper copy, crisp and clean in handsome contemporary calf, covers double gilt and blind ruled to a panel design, corners stopped with small gilt fleurons, gilt fleurons to corners of inner panel, arms of John Bill, Kings Printer at centres, spine blind ruled, slightly later morocco label gilt, edges gilt ruled, a.e.r. endpapers renewed, extremities slightly rubbed.

A remarkable, large paper copy bound with the arms of the Kings printer John Bill, almost certainly made for presentation; The University of Toronto, British Armorial Bindings, records two vols with John Bill’s armorial device, one of them being another copy of this work. At this late stage in his career John Bill was a hugely successful, influential and wealthy printer. “In the Jacobean period the King’s Printers were Robert Barker (1570–1645), and the two Shropshire men, Bonham Norton (1564–1635) and John Bill (1576–1630). At this time the office of the King’s Printer included the privilege to print the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer in English. .… But the rights to the office of King’s Printer in English were in dispute, and Robert Barker, Bonham Norton and John Bill—who held the office either alone, or together in various partnerships from 1603–1645—fought bitter legal battles in the Court of Chancery for more than a decade to establish their rights to a share in the business. …. through John Bill’s good managing of the business (which drew in overseas investments through his Continental contacts) the office began to pay. These Continental contacts emerged from a joint-stock partnership which Bonham Norton, John Norton, and John Bill had set up in 1603. This long-running partnership, from 1603-1619 was designed to import continental books and stationary, and to produce books at home and abroad. It operated through an intricate web of book-trade contacts and markets, which John Bill was able to draw into the operation of the King’s Printing House. The KPH institutions extended their power as instruments of cultural production in Jacobean England. James’s desire to define a national culture and influence European thought through the printed word meant that the Salopian’s book-trading became as important culturally for the king as it was financially for the partners.” ‘A Brief History of the King’s Printing House (KPH) in the Jacobean Period’

Attractive principal edition of the classic early ‘Life’ of Mary, Queen of Scots and the author’s only printed work. Though drawn almost exclusively from the Latin history of the period by Camden (probably with Camden’s sanction), it achieved considerable popular success. Mary was one of the most attractive and fascinating figures of British history of the late C16th., and the establishment of her Stuart line on the throne of England of course heightened the interest of Englishmen in her life and unhappy fate. “Anticipating that his portraits of Elizabeth and Mary would met with objections, Camden appears to have opposed publishing his Annales in English during his lifetime. As evidence, historians usually point to Jame’s commission for Abraham Darcie’s translation, which was not printed until 1625, over a year after Camden’s death. Udall’s neglected ‘Historie of the Life and Death of Mary Stuart Queene of Scotland’ appeared even earlier, in 1624, evidence that James was getting what was for him the most significant part of the text out to the English public as soon as possible. Udall, who first published this book under the name ‘William Stranguage’ does not credit Camden as his source, and up through the nineteenth century, many, if not most, readers assumed Udall wrote it himself. Udall’s history popularises a version of Mary’s tragedy that argues for James’s legitimacy against those who might challenge him.”. By John D. Staines ‘The Tragic Histories of Mary Queen of Scots, 1560-1690.’

A stunning copy of this important work.

ESTC. S117760. STC 24509a. Pforzheimer I 123. Arber IV 158.


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A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence.

Antwerp, by Robert Bruney. And to be sold at London by Iohn Norton and Iohn Bill, 1605.


FIRST EDITION. 4to., pp. [xxiv], 338, [xiv]. +,  ++, +++, A-2X. Roman letter, some Italic and Gothic. Small engraving on t-p in red and black, 11 engraved plates in text, woodcut initials head and tail-pieces, note concerning the prefatory poems in C19th hand on fly, index of the engravings, in the same hand, on following page, several C19th sale notices concerning this edition tipped in., bookplate of James Elwin Millward on pastedown. Title a little soiled and dusty with ink spot on engraving, verso of last dusty, occasional marginal stain or thumb mark, very minor marginal spotting in places. A very good copy, with good margins and good impressions of the plates, in C19th diced Russia, covers bordered with a double blind rule, spine with raised bands, ruled in blind, title and date gilt lettered, a.e.r.

First edition of Richard Verstegan’s (alias Rowland’s 1565-1620) important history of the Saxon invasions, the development of the English language, the formation of its surnames, and general early English lore. Verstegan displays a great knowledge of early English history and of Anglo Saxon, which he had studied at Oxford before leaving on account of his Catholicism. He removed to Antwerp, whence his grandfather originated, and set up a printing press.  There he acted as agent for the transmission of Catholic literature (some of which he printed) and letters to and from England and the rest of Europe. He corresponded with Cardinal Allen and Robert Parsons and for a time was in their pay, he was a very well connected figure in the recusant world. “The Restitution was first published in 1605, but it continued to be reprinted long after Verstegan’s death, and it’s probably the book for which he is best known in England. It is very straightforward work, with the simple object of demonstrating the descent of the English from the Germanic peoples of northern Europe. This was not as foregone a conclusion as one might think today and Verstegan presented the book with all the trappings of authority he could muster.”

The present work contains, amongst other exotica, the first account of the Pied Piper of Hamlyn, and a description of werewolves; “the werewolves are certayne sorcerers, who having annoynted their bodies with an oyntment which they make by the instinct of the devil, and putting on a certayne inchaunted girdle, doe not openly unto to the view of others, but to their owne thinking have both shape and nature of wolves so long as they weare the said girdle.  And they do dispose of themselves as very wolves, in worrying and killing, and most of humane creatures”. Verstegan was one of the first generation of Anglo Saxon scholars, the work contains one of the earliest published Anglo Saxon word lists, predating Somner. It is dedicated to King James I whom Verstegan describes as “descended of the chiefest bloud Royall of our antient English Saxon kings”; followed by an epistle to the English nation and some 10 verses including one by Thomas Shelton, translator of Don Quixote, also a most useful table of contents. Verstegan begins his work by describing the origins of the English, that they were descended from Saxons whom he states are from Germany. However he says that the Welsh, Cornish, Irish and Scots retain their ancient origins and are not of Saxon descent, indeed they refer to the English in their own language as “Sasons, or Saxsonach”. Verstegan deals with every aspect of England’s history including stating in chapter 4 that England was once joined to France before the “flood of Noah”. He ends his work with a final chapter on the origins and purpose of “tithes of honour, dignities and offices”, and intriguingly the significance of “our English names of disgrace or contempt”.  A very interesting gathering of anecdote and history, illustrated at key points with very detailed and clear engravings.

ESTC S116255. STC 21361. Gillow V p.556.  Lowndes and Allison & Rogers have 1605 edn.


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SANDYS, George


A relation of a iourney … Containing a description of the Turkish Empire, of Ægypt, of the Holy Land, of the remote parts of Italy, and ilands adioyning.

London, Printed [by Thomas Cotes] for Ro: Allot, 1627.


Folio pp. (iv) 309 (i). A², B-2D, two fldg. engraved plates, without last blank. Mostly Roman letter, some Italic. Fine engraved architectural title by Delaram depicting Isis, the Sibyl and ‘Achmet’, Truth and Constance above, the Cumaean Sibyl below, with early hand colouring, double full page map of the eastern Mediterranean and Near East, smaller double-page engraved view of the sultan’s seraglio with early hand colouring, 46 fine illustrations of places and costumes engraved in text, a few with early hand colouring, many after Natale Bonifacio, variant issue without the engraving, often missed, intended to fill a blank spot left on D4v. General light age-yellowing, minor, very light marginal water-staining in places, t-p very slightly soiled, rare mark or spot. A very good copy, crisp and clean, in handsome contemporary calf, covers blind and double gilt ruled to a panel design, fleurons gilt to outer corners, central arabesque gilt, rebacked to match, spine with gilt ruled raised bands, corners restored.

Third edition of the story of Sandys’ great journey throughout 1610 through north Italy, Venice, Turkey, Egypt, the Greek Islands and Palestine; George Sandy’s Relation is one of the most interesting and important travel books of the English Renaissance. He was an observant traveller as well as an able writer and the work was immediately popular, as well as regarded as authoritative. Izaak Walton noticed in his ‘Compleat Angler’ (pt. i, ch. i) Sandys’ account of the pigeon courier service between Aleppo and Babylon, and Milton derived hints for his ‘Ode on the Passion’ (st. viii) from Sandys’ ‘Hymn to my Redeemer’ composed on visiting the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. One of the works responsible for reviving English interest in the ‘Near East’, it is still important for its references to contemporary customs and commerce and its contribution to the geography and ethnology of the area (see J.F.B. S90 of 1st ed.). Its faithful engravings of maps, views, costumes and antiquities doubtless contributed to the work’s wide popularity.

“Sandys was a perceptive observer of other peoples and cultures, noting details from everyday life as well as those of more obvious importance, and he was able to move easily from one to the other in his writing. He comments on the significance of the crocodile in Egyptian cultural and religious life, as well as recognising the achievements of Egyptian civilisation. Sandys account of the Jews is notably sympathetic to their plight and the anti-semitic prejudice they have suffered, and he includes comments on Jewish women (again, sympathetic in the main.)”. Andrew Hadfield. ‘Amazons, Savages, and Machiavels: Travel and Colonial Writing in English. 1550 -1630.’

Sandys was also deeply interested in America. He was one of the undertakers named in the third charter of the Virginia company and later treasurer and member of its Council. His celebrated translation of Ovid was actually completed in America.”These travels written in a pleasant style are distinguished by erudition, sagacity and a love of truth” Lowndes.

ESTC S114571. STC 21728. See Blackmer 1484 and Gay 2232. Lowndes VI 2189. Taylor 1089. Alden 637/89 – includes references to the Turks’ use of tobacco.


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