WOODALL, John

The surgeons mate or Military & domestique surgery. Discouering faithfully & plainly ye method and order of ye surgeons chest, ye vses of the instruments, the vertues and operations of ye medicines, w[i]th ye exact cures of wounds made by gun-shott, and otherwise .. The cures of the scuruey…

London, printed by Rob: Young [J. Legate? and E. Purslowe], for Nicholas Bourne, and are to be sold at his shop at the south entrance of the Royall Exchange. 1639.

£10,500

FIRST EDITION thus. Folio. pp. [xl], 26, [viii], 27-98, 141-275, [xiii], 301-412, [xii]. (-)1, A⁶ + (-)2, B⁶, (B5+[pi]1), C-F⁴, G⁸, H-O⁴, P⁶, 2A-2R⁴, [par.]⁶, 3A-3O⁴ 3P-3R². 5 leaves of plates (2 folded). Roman letter, some Italic and Gothic. Engraved title, bordered with portraits of famous doctors, the authors portrait below, 4 engraved plates of surgical instruments, one folding letterpress table, woodcut of Mercury on Ll3 recto, full page engraved frontispiece portrait of Charles I on horseback, woodcut alchemical symbols in text, large floriated initials, woodcut headpieces, typographical ornaments, ”Viaticum,” “Of the plague”, and “A treatise of gangrena” with separate dated title pages, with imprint “printed by E.P. for Nicholas Bourne”, pagination and register continuous from “Viaticum”, this copy with an extra ‘Epistle Congratulatory’ to Sir Christopher Clitherow, Governour of the Company of Merchants of London, inserted in first quire, not mentioned in ESTC, but as copy in Kings College London. Early autographs, repeated, of Jonathan and Thomas Paddy on fly and at head of t-p. Light age yellowing, water staining to upper margin, with small tears, outer blank margin of engraved title torn to plate mark and restored, small tear in blank of frontispiece restored, light waterstaining in places, occasional thumb mark, stain or spot. A good, crisp copy with good margins in contemporary English calf, covers bordered with a triple blind rule, spine with blind ruled raised bands, head and tail chipped, joints worn, all edges red.

A good copy, unusually complete, of the second edition of ‘The surgeons mate’, the first edition to include all Woodall’s works. John Woodall (1570–1643), a contemporary of Harvey, was an English military surgeon in Lord Willoughby’s regiment in 1591 and later first surgeon-general to the East India Company in 1612, and surgeon to St. Bartholomew’s Hospital from 1616 to 1643. He was also a Paracelsian chemist, businessman, linguist and diplomat. This edition of the Surgeon’s Mate was made required reading for all naval surgeons in the Company. He made a fortune through the stocking of medical chests for the East India Company and later the armed forces of England. The Surgeon’s Mate was the standard text to advise ships surgeons on medical treatments at sea and contains an advanced view on the treatment of scurvy. The first edition was published in 1617. This 1 second edition has the addition of the ‘Viaticum, being the Pathway to the Surgeon’s Chest, intended Chiefly for the better curing of Wounds made by Gunshot; A Treatise… of that most fearefull and contagious Disease called the Plague and A Treatise of Gangrena… chiefly for the Amputation or Dismembering of any Member of the mortified part.’ Woodall provides an extensive inventory and description of the medicines and their uses, of the instruments that the chest of the Surgeon’s Mate should contain, and those that ‘one Barbours case…ought not be Wanting… if the Surgeon’s Mate cannot trimme men.’ He devotes pages 160-176 to ‘the scurvy called in Latine Scorbutum.’ His therapeutic section considers treatments for a variety of symptoms and complications for associated conditions. His preface includes in part the remarkable statement.“[W]e have in our owne country here many excellent remedies generally knowne, as namely, Scurvy-grasse, Horse-Reddish roots, Nasturtia Aquatica, Wormwood, Sorrell, and many other good meanes… to the cure of those which live at home…they also helpe some Sea-men returned from farre who by the only natural disposition of the fresh aire and amendment of diet, nature herselfe in effect doth the Cure without other helps.” At sea, he states that experience shows that “the Lemmons, Limes, Tamarinds, Oranges, and other choice of good helps in the Indies… do farre exceed any that can be carried tither from England.”. These observations anticipated modern knowledge of the properties of vitamin C in regard to scurvy, and of the unstable nature of this vitamin when stored. A good unsophisticated copy of this important and most interesting work, often incomplete.

ESTC S95910. STC 25963. Wellcome 6775; cf. Garrison and Morton 2144. Osler 4273.  Lowndes 2987.

L2161

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BRUNSCHWIG, Hieronymus

ALCHEMY IN THE SERVICE OF MEDICINE

Liber der arte distulandi simplicia et composita : das nüv bůch d[er] rechte[n] Kunst zů distilliere[n], ouch vo[n] Marsilio Ficino vn[nd] andere[n] hochberömpte[n] Ertzte natürliche vn[nd] gůte Kunst, zů behalte[n] den gesunden Leib vn[nd] zů vertreibe[n] die Krankheiter[n] mit Erlengeru[n]g des Lebe[n]s.

[Strassburg, Johan Grüniger, 1509].

£43,500

Folio. ff. cxxx (i.e. cxl), (lviii) in double column. A⁸, B-D⁶, DD⁶, DDD⁴, E-T⁶, V⁸, X⁴, Y-Z⁶, AA-CC⁶, DD⁴, EE-FF⁶, GG⁸. Gothic letter. First title with two large woodcuts, the other two with half page woodcuts, one double page woodcut, innumerable half page and column width woodcuts, all in fine contemporary hand colouring, capital spaces with guide letters, white on black and floriated woodcut initials. Light age yellowing, slight water staining on lower blank margin of a few leaves, early restoration of three holes to lower blank margin of title, backed at foot, the odd marginal thumb mark or spot. A very good copy, with woodcuts and colouring in wonderful fresh state of preservation, crisp and clean with good margins, in excellent contemporary German calf over wooden boards, covers triple blind ruled to a panel design, middle panel filled with a fine blind scroll of hunting scene of three dear and a huntsman with spear, central panel filled with repeated blind floral scroll, semé of flowers stamped in black, “Distillirrbuch’ stamped in large black Gothic letter in upper panel of front cover, spine with three blind ruled raised bands with blind ‘crown’ fleurons above and below, lacking clasps and catches, small restoration in places, a little rubbed and scratched.

A wonderful copy of this rare and most interesting compilation, beautifully illustrated and vividly coloured in a contemporary hand, preserved in a fine contemporary binding. It is a pharmaceutical and alchemical collection first published in 1505 under the title ‘Medicinarius. Das Buch der Gesundheit’ and including books I and II of Brunschwig’s ‘Liber de arte distillandi de simplicibus,’ also called ‘Kleines Destillierbuch; Ficino’s Das Buch des Lebens,’ translated by Johannes Adelphus; and a treatise on compounds by a Strassburg master, Konrad.

Hieronymus Brunschwig (c. 1450 – c. 1512) was a German physician, surgeon, chemist, and pharmacologist whose ‘Liber de arte distillandi simplicia et composita’ (‘Little Book of Distillation’), was the first book to systematically describe essential oils, their distillation and extraction from plants, and their medicinal applications. The wonderful hand-coloured woodcuts show detailed instructions on the distillation process. The first part of the treatise describes the methods and apparati for the distillation of extracts from various plants and animals. The second part describes certain medicinal plants, and the third part contains an exhaustive list of maladies along with a corresponding list of plant distillates and extracts recommended.

“Because of their completeness Brunschwig’s compilations of the technical terms adaptable to pharmacy in the early sixteenth century and his records of his experience in the treatment of gunshot wounds and in surgery are noteworthy accomplishments. Even if they are not the first of their kind, they still represent an important link between the Middle Ages and modern times.” (DSB I, p. 547) The work is most beautifully and interestingly illustrated including vivid images of gardens and banquets. “With detailed instructions, ranging from the right times to collect herbs to the exact specifications for constructing distillation equipment, Brunschwig hoped to make medicinal alchemy accessible to ‘the common people that dwell far from medicines and physicians and for them that not be able to pay for costly medicines,’ he wrote.” Cristina Luiggi ‘Medicinal Alchemy, circa 1512.’

Marsilio Ficino (1433 – 99) was one of the leading intellectuals in Florence, a magnet for the most brilliant scholars of fifteenth-century Europe. His ‘De vita’ is a curious amalgam of philosophy, medicine, ‘natural magic’ and astrology, and is possibly the first book ever written about the health of the intellectual and its peculiar concerns. It includes astrological charts and remedies, philosophical digressions, medieval prescriptions for various ills, attempts at reconciling the Neoplatonism of Plotinus with Christian scripture, and magical remedies and talismans.

“The work that Ficino composed alongside his commentaries on Plotinus, his influential astral-medical treatise, ‘De vita libri tres,’ or ‘Three books on life,’ published in 1489 … is listed is Borel’s ‘Bibliotheca Chimica’ as another of Ficino’s alchemical works.  … One of the most revealing examples of how Ficino’s de Vita was assimilated into the alchemical tradition can be found in the translation of the first two books as ‘Das Buch des Lebens’ in 1505 by the Strasbourg physician and humanist Johannes Adelphus Muling. The German version was re-edited several times and printed together with editions of two of the most highly regarded works on distillation. One of these was Hieronymous Braunschweig’s ‘De arte distillandi’ and anyone familiar with the 1500 title page of Braunschweig’s much reprinted work will notice how it has been adopted by the publisher of the 1505 edition as an illustration for Ficino’s text.” Peter J. Forshaw. ‘Laus Platonici Philosophi: Marsilio Ficino and His Influence.’

Unfortunately, we have not been able to identify the binder from the tools, though the Einbanddatenbank has other tools with very similar hunting scrolls. Interestingly, the copy illustrated at the Bayerische StaatsBibliothek, BSB Call Nr.: Res/2 M.med. 35 has the same title blind-stamped on its binding, suggesting that this was probably the production of the same binder, or probably the publishers binding. A beautiful copy with the colouring absolutely fresh and clean.

Wellcome 1113. Not in BM STC Ger. C16th, Osler, Durling or Duveen.

K55

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ALLESTREE, Richard [with] DADE, William [and] NEVE, John et. al.

12 EXCEPTIONALLY RARE ALMANACKS FOR THE YEAR 1635

£25,000

I. ALLESTREE, Richard.1635. A new almanacke and prognostication, for the yeere of our Lord God, 1635. Collected and properly referred to the longitude and sublimity of the pole Artick, of 51. deg. 32. mi.

London, W. Stansby, for the Company of Stationers, [1635].

8vo. 24 unnumbered leaves. A-C⁸. Roman and black letter, some italic, calendar printed in red and black, title in red and black within fine red and black woodcut border with signs of the zodiac, royal arms above, woodcut diagram of the eclipses, “An appendix vnto the precedent almanacke, for this present yeere of grace M.DC. XXXV.” has a separate titlepage within double box rule, with the imprint: Printed by I. L[egat]. for the Company of Stationers. 1635. Light age yellowing, title dusty, torn with loss to lower outer corner, dust soiling on second leaf.

STC 407.18. ESTC S123562. Copies only Bodleian and Folger.

 

II. DADE, William. A new almanacke, and prognostication, with the forraigne computation. In which you may behold the state of this yeare 1635. For the meridian of London.

London, Iohn Dawson for the Company of Stationers, [1635].

8vo. 16 unnumbered leaves. A-B8. Roman and black letter, some italic, calendar printed in red and black, title in red and black within typographical border woodcut diagram of the Anatomical man, typographical ornaments. “A Prognostication, in which you may behold the state of this yeare of our Lord God 1635.” has a separate title page within a typographical border, with the imprint: “Printed by the Company of Stationers. 1635.” Light age yellowing.

STC 435.24. ESTC S125640. One complete copy only at Lambeth, BL has t-p only.

 

III. NEVE, John. A new almanack and prognostication, with the forraigne computation serving for the yeere of our Lord God, and Saviour Iesus Christ, 1635. Rectified for the elevation of the pole artick, and meridian of the ancient and famous citty of Norwich.

London, E[liz.] A[llde] for the Company of Stationers, [1635].

8vo. 20 unnumbered leaves. A-B8, C4. Roman and black letter, some italic, calendar printed in red and black, title in red and black within fine woodcut border with spheres, woodcut diagram of the anatomical man, “A Prognostication serving for this yeare of our Lord God and saviour Iesus Christi 1635” has a separate title page within typographical border. Light age yellowing, tear with loss of text to two lines on B2, the odd spot.

STC 490.11.  ESTC S125642 One complete copy only at BL, Lambeth has t-p only.

 

IV. WHITE, John. A new almanacke and prognostication for the yeere of our Lord God 1635, : calculated for the meridian of the most honorable citie of London.

London, William Stansby for the Company of Stationers, [1635].

8vo. 20 unnumbered leaves. [A]-B⁸ C⁴. Roman and black letter, some italic, calendar printed in red and black, title in red and black within fine red and black woodcut border with royal arms above, woodcut diagram of the anatomical man, “A Prognostication for this yeare of our Lord God 1635” has a separate title page within typographical border, with the imprint: Printed for the Company of Stationers. 1635. Light age yellowing.

STC  527.25. ESTC S2482. One copy only at Lambeth.

 

V. WOODHOUSE, John. A new almanacke and prognostication for the yeare of our Lord God 1635. … More especially for the meridian of the ancient city of Chichester, and the southerne parts.

London, Iohn Dawson for the Company of Stationers, [1635].

8vo. 20 unnumbered leaves. A-B⁸, C⁴. Roman and black letter, some italic, calendar printed in red and black, title in red and black within typographical border, woodcut diagram of the anatomical man, “Wood-house. 1635. A prognostication, contayning the raignes of all the kings, and queenes of this kingdome, since the conquest.” has a separate title page within typographical border. Light age yellowing.

STC 531.26. ESTC S90272. One copy only at Lambeth.

 

VI. VAUX, John. A new almanack and prognostication for the yeere of our Lord God, 1635. Calculated for the meridian of the ancient citty of Durham, where the pole is mounted above the horizon almost 55. degrees.

London, E[liz.] A[llde] for the Company of Stationers, [1635].

8vo. 20 unnumbered leaves. [A]-B⁸ C⁴. Roman and black letter, some italic, calendar printed in red and black, title in red and black within fine red and black woodcut border with spheres, “Vaux. 1635. A prognostication for the yeere of our Lord God, 1635.” has a separate title page within typographical border, with the imprint: Printed at London for the Company of Stationers. 1635. Light age yellowing.

STC 522.15. ESTC S90250. One copy only at Lambeth.

 

VII. SOFFARD, Arthur. A new almanack for the yeere of our Lord God, 1635. Calculated especially for the latitude and meridian of the most honourable citty of London.

London, E[liz.] A[llde] for the Company of Stationers, [1635].

8vo. 20 unnumbered leaves. [A]-B⁸ C⁴. Roman and black letter, some italic, calendar printed in red and black, title in red and black within fine red and black woodcut border with spheres, “Soffard. 1635. A prognostication for the yeere of Grace, 1635.” has a separate title page within typographical border, with the imprint: Printed for the Company of Stationers. 1635. Light age yellowing.

STC 515.18. ESTC S125651. One complete copy only at BL, Lambeth has t-p only.

 

VIII. PERKINS, Samuel. A new almanack and prognosticatiou [sic] for the yeere of our Lord God, 1635. … Composed and chiefly referred to the meridian of the famous citty of London.

London, E.A. for the Company of Stationers, [1635].

8vo. 20 unnumbered leaves. [A]-B⁸ C⁴. Roman and black letter, some italic, calendar printed in red and black, woodcut of anatomical man, title in red and black within fine red and black woodcut border with spheres, “Perkins. 1635. A prognostication for the yeere of our Lord, 1635.” has a separate title page within typographical border, with the imprint: Printed for the Company of Stationers. 1635. Light age yellowing.

STC 495.10. ESTC S125649. One complete copy only at BL, Lambeth has t-p only.

 

IX. LANGLEY, Thomas. A new almanacke and prognostication in which you may behold the state of his present yeere of our Lord God 1635. Composed for the meridian of the famous city of London.

London, William Stansby [and N. O[kes]] for the Company of Stationers, [1635].

8vo. 20 unnumbered leaves. [A]-B⁸ C⁴. Roman and black letter, some italic, calendar printed in red and black, woodcut of anatomical man in red and black, title in red and black within fine red and black woodcut border with Royal arms above, typographical ornaments, ”Langley. 1635. A prognostication for this present yeare of our Lord God, 1635″ has a separate title page within double ruled border, with the imprint: Printed by N. O[kes] for the Company of Stationers. 1635. Light age yellowing.

STC 479. ESTC S125185. two copies only,  BL and Lambeth.

 

X. WYBARD, John. An almanack and prognostication, with the forraine computation, serving for the yeare of our Lord and Saviour Iesus Christ, 1635. Calculated properly for the latitude and meridian o the most famous city of London.

London, Iohn Dawson for the Company of Stationers, [1635].

8vo. 20 unnumbered leaves. [A]-B⁸ C⁴. Roman and black letter, some italic, calendar printed in red and black, woodcut of anatomical man, title in red and black within typographical, typographical ornaments. Wybard’s prognostication without separate title page. Light age yellowing.

STC 532.9. ESTC S125650, two copies only,  BL and Lambeth.

 

XI. PIERCE, Mathew. A new almanack and prognosticaion for the yeere of our Lord, 1635. Calculated for the latitude and meridian of the Citty of Durham, the pole artick being elevated 55. degrees.

London, E[liz.] A[llde] for the Company of Stationers, 1635.

8vo. 20 unnumbered leaves. [A]-B⁸ C⁴. Roman and black letter, some italic, calendar printed in red and black, woodcut of anatomical man, title in red and black within fine red and black woodcut border with spheres, typographical ornaments, “Pierce. 1635. A prognostication for the yeere of our Redemption, 1635.” has a separate title page within typographical border, with the imprint: Printed for the Company of Stationers. 1635. Light age yellowing.

STC 496.2. ESTC S125652. One complete copy only at BL, Lambeth has t-p only.

 

XII. JEFFEREYS, Thomas. A new almanacke and prognostication for the yeere of our Lord Iesus Christ. 1635. Calculated, erected, and especially referred to the latitude and meridian of the ancient towne of Dorchester in the county of Dorset.

London, William Stansby [and John Norton] for the Company of Stationers, [1635].

8vo. 20 unnumbered leaves. [A]-B⁸ C⁴. Roman and black letter, some italic, calendar printed in red and black, title in red and black within red and black woodcut border with royal arms above, large woodcut diagram of the anatomical man on A2 verso another with another on verso of the title of the prognostication, typographical ornaments, “Jeffereys. 1635. A Prognostication, written by Thomas Jeffereys, this present yeere of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1635” has a separate title page within double ruled border, with the imprint: Printed by I. N. for the Company of Stationers. 1635. Light age yellowing, verso of last soiled, the last few leaves a little dog-eared.

STC 464.7. ESTC S125667. Three copies only, British Library, Durham University Library, Lambeth.

 

A sammelband of twelve volumes. Very good copies, generally crisp and clean, in contemporary polished vellum, yapp edges, covers bordered with a double gilt rule, gilt arms of Charles I at centres, spine triple gilt rued in compartments, large fleurons gilt at centres, all edges red (faded), remains of ties, a little soiled, outer edge of upper cover a little chipped, block loose in binding.

An extraordinary collection of twelve almanacs, all for the year 1635, and all of the utmost rarity, many surviving in a single copy and many recorded with just the title page, all preserved in a very good contemporary binding with the Royal arms. Whether this collection was made for presentation to Charles I, or simply gathered over the year 1635 and bound by a royal institution is not known, but they form a large part of all the almanacks published in the year 1635.

These Almanacks were all printed in London but provided prognostications for specific places. Jeffereys was made “to the latitude and meridian of the ancient towne of Dorchester in the county of Dorset,” others were made for Durham, Chichester, and Norwich. All these exceptionally rare almanacks are complete with the interesting Prognostication (or ‘Appendix’) called for on the title-page, which are often missing from almanacks of this period. The ephemeral and popular nature of these almanacks provides a most interesting and rare insight into the lives of ordinary people, revealing their daily concerns and routines.

The ordinary users of almanacks often made their way into contemporary literature. “The writers of this age thought of the Almanack and prognostication with mixed feelings: it was a thing of eternal humour as it had been to Pico, Turnebe, Montaigne, and others before them; and it was, too often, the sole furniture of many private libraries, the untrustworthy source of faith and learning for numerous foolish and simple Englishmen. That it was the superstitious and the untutored who were the regular purchasers of these catchpenny publications is suggested by the reliance of Shakespeare’s mechanic actors on an almanack. By similar instance, in ‘The Witch of Edmonton,’ Jonson sends the childish Abel Drugger to consult Subtle about the rubrication of his almanack, and draws the picture of Sordido, who is one of the prognostication-trusting farmers Fulke or Perkins brought to life. … Webster, whose skill in astrology has been recognised, describes a lying character as an almanack-maker.” Don Cameron Allen. The Star-crossed Renaissance: The Quarrel about Astrology and Its Influence.

The almanacks provide such things as “Husbandry instructions” for each month of the year, even weather forecasts for the entire year. “General Rules of Physicke” suggest that one should “cut no veyne nor let no blood, when the sign is in the place where the incision is to be made,” with reference to the zodiac on the anatomical man. There are adverts for lawyers’ services, offering “an abstract of a direction, concerning Real Contracts,” and lists of the principal “Fayres of England” with their dates, with pages on forthcoming eclipses, and aspects of planets and definitions for astrological terms.

An extraordinary, unique collection of these most ephemeral and rare publications.

L2148

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LEONICENO, Niccolò

A FIRST FORAY INTO THE STUDY OF SYPHILIS

Libellus de Epidemia, quam vulgo morbum Gallicum vocant.

Venice, Aldus Manutius, 1497.

£25,000

FIRST EDITION. 4to., 29 leaves, a-c8, d(4+1). Predominantly Roman letter, little Greek; lower outer corner of title slightly soiled, very light marginal water stains. A very good copy in old vellum, recased, gilt title and author’s name on front cover; five marginalia, including a scholarly cutting remark (slightly cropped), in same contemporary probably French hand at head of title ‘Est Meij Jo. Baptis. Loms[?]’.

First edition of the earliest scholarly account of syphilis, by Niccolò Leoniceno (1428-1524), a very influential physician, botanist and scholar of the Italian Renaissance. A skilled student of Greek, Leoniceno taught in Padua before settling in the university and court of Ferrara. Here, he accomplished pioneering translations of the Greek classics, such as Arrian, Diodorus, Appian, Polybius, Cassius Dio and, first and foremost, a large part of Galen’s corpus. Over the course of his extraordinarily long life, Leoniceno was well acquainted with the most prominent scholars of his time, including Pico della Mirandola, Ermolao Barbaro and Angelo Poliziano. Lending Aldus Manutius some of his prized manuscripts, he took an active part in the Aldine Greek editions of Aristotle and Galen.

In 1497, he published De morbo Gallico, following the epidemic in the Italian peninsula after the arrival of the French troops of Charles VIII. The book, dedicated to Gian Francesco Pico della Mirandola, corrects several mistakes of the Arabic medical tradition in identifying and naming diseases and proved that syphilis had been known already to the Greeks and Romans. This and other works by Leoniceno led Erasmus to rate him as one of the few humanists to revive medical studies alongside Guillaume Cop and Linacre. This copy retains the final additional leaf with errata.

ISTC, il00165000; BM STC, V, 557; GW, M17947; Hain, 10019; IGI 6814; Goff, L-165; Klebs, 599.1; Renouard, 14:12 (‘Extrêmement rare, et le premier qui ait été publié sur cette maladie’); Wellcome, 3736; Morton, 2363; Bibliotheca Osleriana, 7452. Not in Durling or Heirs of Hippocrates.

K48

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KETHAM, Johannes de

FIRST MEDICAL BOOK ILLUSTRATED WITH REALISTIC FIGURES

Fasciculus medici[n]e.

Venice, Cesare Arrivabene, 1522.

£29,500

Folio, ff. (4), 58 (i.e. 59), (1). Roman letter; title within decorative border, printer’s device on penultimate verso, historiated and black-on-white decorated initials, ten detailed and neat full-page illustrations; a few dust-soiled leaves, minor oil splash on 23r-26v, just affecting one woodcut. A fine copy in crushed dark morocco gilt by Gruel, a. e. g.; several contemporary and late sixteenth-century Italian marginalia, manicula and emendations by different hands; small blue stamp of the Selbourne Library on title verso and foot of 51r. Preserved in slipcase.

Early edition of a masterpiece of the Renaissance art of the book, revised and expanded after the princeps of 1491. Little, if anything, is known about Kentham, who has been identified as Johannes von Kirchheim, a professor from Swabia teaching medicine in Vienna around 1460. Rather than the author of this influential collection of medical essays, he appears to be the owner of the manuscript used by the printer of the first edition who mistakenly took him for the compiler.

The work enjoyed great success and was soon translated into Italian, German and Spanish. This imprint includes Mondino de Luzzi’s Anatomia and the treatise on venoms of his pupil and commentator, Alessandro Achillini; most importantly, it retains all the superb apparatus of illustrations designed for the Italian translation of the Fasciculus published in Venice in 1493 by the de Gregorii brothers, incorporating also the minor changes introduced in the later reprints of 1500 and 1513.

“The typography and artistic qualities of this edition [Venice, 1493] of the Fasciculus make it of interest far beyond the world of medicine. It was the first printed medical book to be illustrated with a series of realistic figures: these include a Zodiac man, bloodletting man, planet man, an urinoscopic consultation, a pregnant woman and notably a dissection scene which is one of the first and finest representation of this operation to appear in any book (…) Most of these figures have medieval prototypes, but they are here designed by an artist of the first rank. His identity has never been discovered; it has been suggested – wrongly – that he was the Polifilo master; but he was certainly an artist close to the Bellini school.” PMM, p. 20.

Uncommon. Not in BM STC It. or Adams. Durling, 2660; Heirs of Hippocrates, 72; Essling, 592; Sandler 3753; PMM, 36 (1493/94).

K32

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WALKINGTON, Thomas

AN ANALYSIS OF THE “FOUR HUMOURS”

The optick glasse of humors or The touchstone of a golden temperature, or the Philosophers stone to make a golden temper

Oxford, W[illiam] T[urner] to be sold by M[ichael] S[parke, London], 1631.

£5,750

8vo. pp. (xxvi), 168, (ii). -2 (par.)⁸ A-K⁸ L⁸. last blank. Roman letter with some Greek and Italic. Engraved frontispiece of astrological chart, views of Oxford and Cambridge above, engraved title with figures of two graduates in cap and gown, representing respectively the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, holding between them an optic class or touchstone, small woodcut initials, typographical headpieces, Selbourne library stamp on blank margin of page 51. Age yellowing, a little dust soiling to first and last few leaves, the odd marginal mark or spot. A very good copy in slightly later calf, raised bands, head a little chipped.

Rare second edition of this important and most influential work on the ‘Humours’, a precursor to Burton’s Anatomie of Melancholy. “Walkington was a native of Lincoln. He was educated at Cambridge. He was elected to a fellowship at St. John’s College, 1603. He was incorporated B.D. of Oxford on 1611, and D.D. of Cambridge in 1613. Walkington was author of a book that anticipated Robert Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy. It was entitled ‘The Optick Glasse of Humors.’ An undated edition, which cannot be dated earlier than 1631, was printed by W[illiam] T[urner] at Oxford. This issue, which has the same dedication as its predecessor, has an elaborately engraved title-page on steel, in which two graduates in cap and gown, representing respectively the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, hold between them an optic glass or touchstone (Madan, Early Oxford Press, pp. 160–161). Richard Farmer, in his Essay on the Learning of Shakespeare, credited ‘T. Wombwell’ with the authorship of Walkington’s treatise on the ‘Optick Glasse,’ and referred to a passage by way of illustrating Shylock’s remarks on irrational antipathies (Merchant of Venice, iv.i.49).” DNB.

During Shakespeare’s time, people believed that the “Four Humors” affected not only our physical health, but also our personalities and mental well-being; the theory was developed in ancient Greece and Rome and influenced European medicine until at least the 18th century. The four humours were blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. These were in balance in a healthy person. Slight imbalances, favouring a specific humour, were thought to result in specific personality types. Greater imbalances were thought to lead to illness. Each humour was associated with specific a element, season, age, quality, personality type, and Zodiac symbols.

The “glasse” in the title is a mirror. The reader is promised greater self-knowledge through understanding the role of the four bodily humours in determining individual human behaviours and overall disposition. For readers of Walkington’s text, “temperament” (what we would call personality) was literally a matter of temperature—the result of the action of cold, hot, wet, and dry in governing behaviour. “Walkington distilled (…) where Burton gathered. From him we get essentials. Through his Optic glass he saw the whole man, a composite of those he knew at Cambridge and at Lincoln, in life and books. Through that same glass we may not see all but certainly many quintessential aspects of his age” Charles Mullet. ‘Thomas Walkington and his ‘Optick Glasse’”.There are very interesting sections on tobacco and its effects on the humours and on health generally. A god copy of this rare and most interesting work.

“Dr. Farmer in his work on the learning of Shakespeare observes ‘In the Merchant of Venice, the Jew, as an apology for his cruelty, rehearses many sympathies and antipathies for which no reason can be rendered. The incident is to be met with in the Optick Glasse 0f Humours” Lowndes.

STC 24968. ESTC S119410. Madan, I, p. 160-1. Lowndes 2814.

L2013

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TAGLIACOZZI, Gaspare

FIRST MEDICAL TREATISE ON PLASTIC SURGERY

De curtorum chirurgia per insitionem.

Venice, Gaspare Bindoni the younger, 1597.

£39,500

FIRST EDITION. Folio, pp. (32), 94, (2), 95, (1), 47, (33). Roman letter, some Italic; decorated initials and tail-pieces; additional engraved architectural title (with its conjugate blank) incorporating arms of Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, and standing Hippocrates and Galen; black-and-red printed title, large printer’s device on both; 22 full-page woodcut illustrations throughout, two smaller of surgical instruments and procedures on f. 257; additional engraved title slightly trimmed at foot, oil splash to upper corner of first three numbered pages, a few leaves browned, little worming to upper margin of last three. A good, very well margined copy in contemporary plain vellum, contemporary inked title to lower edge; two minor stains and spine repairs; early ink initials ‘H.H.M.B.C.’ on both titles, contemporary ex libris on title verso ‘Jacobi Alexandri Nardi ad ipsius usu’, and price on fly.

Most complete issue of the first edition of this curious medical work, devoted entirely to plastic surgery and providing the first instruction for reconstructing nose, lips and ears. Gaspare Tagliacozzi (1545-1599) was a pioneering Italian physician and pupil of Girolamo Cardano, Ulisse Aldrovandi and Giulio Cesare Avanzi. Upon his graduation, he was appointed lecturer of surgery at the University of Bologna; later, he became one of the most acclaimed professors of the athenaeum, demonstrating his techniques of dissection on recently-dead bodies. A pious man, he was charged by the cardinals’ Congregation over the Index of Forbidden Books with the emendation of the works of the Lutheran botanist Leonhardt Fuchs. In Bologna, he also offered his service to the hospital of the Brotherhood of the Death; this local religious fellowship engaged with comforting the prisoners condemned to die. Through this privileged channel, Tagliacozzi had always plenty of corpses for his anatomical and surgical studies.

De curtorum chirurgia was Tagliacozzi’s most renowned achievement. In the work, he improved and described for the first time the so-called metodo italiano, a technique of facial reconstruction via a skin graft taken from the left forearm. The well-known twenty-two plates depict surgical instruments and document every step of the process of rhinoplasty. Following the operation, the patient was immobilised in a complex vest devised by Tagliacozzi himself, waiting for the complete adherence of the graft to his nose. The process was supposed to take from two to three weeks. Tagliacozzi was aware of some aesthetic imperfection of the result, but was more concerned with the relieving benefits he wished to give to his patients’ mind and spirit. His fame as ‘the first plastic surgeon’ was so wide that several Italian noblemen sought his service. Among them, the Duke of Mantua Vincenzo Gonzaga, to whom De curtorum chirurgia is dedicated.

BM STC It., 655; Adams, T59; Durling, 4310; Heirs of Hippocrates, 236; Wellcome, 6210; Garrison & Morton, 5734; Norman, 2048; Osler, 4079.

K33

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LEONICENO, Niccolò [with] LEONICENO, Niccolò [and] HUTTEN, Ulrich von

THE FABRI-IMPERIAL COPY

De serpentibus [with] Antisophista [and] De guaiaci medicina et morbo gallico.

Bologna, Giovanni Antonio Benedetti,1518 [with] Bologna, Girolamo Benedetti,1519 [and] Mainz, Johann Schoeffer, 1519.

£9,500

4to, 3 volumes in one. 1): FIRST EDITION. 54 leaves, A-M4, N6; 2): FIRST EDITION. 78 leaves, A4, BB-II4, K-S4, T6; 3): FIRST EDITION. 44 leaves, a-l4. Roman letter, little Greek; large printer’s device on first colophon, full-page coat of arms of dedicatee on title and full-page portrait of author on final leaf of 3); intermittent marginal light damp stain to 2). A very good copy in eighteenth-century ¾ calf, gilt spine, titles on morocco labels, patterned endpapers; minor worm trails on front joint and rear cover; remains of shelfmark label on front; contemporary 9 line manuscript record on second title of the gift of this volume by Johann Fabri to St Nicholas College in Vienna in 1541; tiny circular stamp of the Selbourne library to margin of ff. Aiv, Giiir.

A very interesting collection of uncommon first-edition medical treatises on snakes, venoms and syphilis by Niccolò Leoniceno and Ulrich von Hutten. Leoniceno (1428-1524) was a very influential physician, botanist and scholar of the Italian Renaissance. A skilled student of Greek, he taught in Padua before settling in the university and the court of Ferrara. Here, he accomplished several pioneering translations of the Greek classics, such as Arrian, Diodorus, Appian, Polybius, Cassius Dio and, first and foremost, large part of Galen’s corpus. Over the course of his extraordinary long life, Leoniceno was well acquainted with the most prominent scholars of his time, including Pico della Mirandola, Ermolao Barbaro and Angelo Poliziano. Lending Aldus Manutius some of his prized manuscripts, he took an active part in the Aldine Greek editions of Aristotle and Galen.

In 1497, he published the first scholarly account of syphilis, following the epidemic in the Italian peninsula after the arrival of the French troops of Charles VIII. Ulrich von Hutten (1488-1523) was a German poet as well as a precursor and early partisan of Luther. After quitting monastic life and searching in vain for patrons of his pen, he eventually came into the service of the prince-archbishop Albert of Brandenburg. In 1517, the Emperor bestowed him the title of poet laureate. Later, he lost Albert’s favour and took part in the disastrous religious uprising known as the Knights’ Revolt in 1523; he died in seclusion in Zurich. He published extensively both in Latin and German and set up a printing press in Strasbourg.

The work opening this volume is the earliest scientific attempt to describe effects and antidotes of snakes’ venom and discusses other dangerous reptiles such as crocodiles. This is the most correct variant of the first edition, comprising the ‘Mendae ex incuria’ on title verso. De Serpentibus also includes a short essay on vipers, previously issued by Aldus Manutius about 1497, almost certainly in recognition of Leoniceno’s contribution to the Aldine enterprise. Then follows the Antisophista, a defence of Leoniceno’s pedagogical and theoretical thinking. Although allegedly written by a former pupil of his hidden behind the pseudonym ‘Medicus Romanus’, this work is frequently ascribed to Leoniceno himself. It strongly argues that many Italian physicians and professors of medicine dwell too much on the sophistications introduced by Roman, Arab and medieval translators, instead of going back to Greek sources and grasping the true meaning of medical terms.

Leoniceno’s teaching marks a fundamental watershed in the history of early modern medicine, triggering the revival of Galenic and Hippocratic studies (see R. J. Durling, ‘A Chronological Census of Renaissance Editions and Translations of Galen’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, XXIV, 1961, pp. 230-305). The third work of the volume consists of one of the earliest reports by a patient affected by syphilis. Von Hutten suffered from this illness for 15 years and decided to share his pain with readers by describing symptoms and treatments with the help of Albert of Brandenburg’s physicians. He tried unsuccessfully to cure himself with mercury and later with guaiacum (gum from a tree of Central America). Such an innovative account was immediately reprinted in Paris and Strasbourg. It is dedicated to Albert of Brandenburg, who also died of syphilis.

This copy of Antisophista was previously owned by Johann Fabri (1478-1541), bishop of Vienna and prominent Catholic controversialist. A learned theologian and humanist, Fabri gathered an impressive library, which he bequeathed to the trilingual college he had established in Vienna. This institution, however, had a very short life and Fabri’s books were for the most part included into the Imperial Library (now the Austrian National Library). The notarial annotation on the title page, dictated by Fabri on 10 January 1541 some months before dying, records the first donation to the college, to the benefit of students and professors.

1) Not in Durling or Heirs of Hippocrates. BM STC It., 466; Adams, L501; Brunet III, 986 (‘volume peu commun’); Wellcome I, 3740.

2) Not BM STC It or Heirs of Hippocrates. Adams, L498; Durling, 3053; Welcome, 3741.

3) Not in Heirs of Hippocrates. BM STC Ger., 426; Adams, H1221; Durling, 2509; Welcome, 3364.

L2011

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HERBAL

Herbolario volgare

Venice, Giovanni Andrea Valvassori and brothers, 1534.

£27,500

8vo, 180 leaves, a6, A-X8, Y6 (Yiii and conjugate leaf misbound at the beginning after aaiii, aaii after aaiii). Roman letter; decorated initials, large vignette representing Saints Cosmas and Damian on title, woodcut of Virgin and Child on aaviv, 151 3/4-page illustrations, large printer’s device on final leaf recto; three tiny marginal wormholes to title and first two leaves, small largely interlinear worm trail to final four, clean marginal tear to Yv. A very good copy in contemporary light-brown calf, blind-tooled uncommonly silvered including title on upper cover, double-fillet, roll of fleurons, central panel with keys and crowns (heraldic symbols?) and corner and central floral Arabesque; probably by a provincial workshop of Northern Italy; all edges gauffered gilt; skilfully re-backed, upper corners chipped, three wormholes to front cover, small worm trail to rear.

Very rare complete copy of the first issue (27 July 1534) of the second Italian vernacular edition of the Latin Herbarius. Another issue appeared on 15 November of the same year. The more common first Italian translation was published as a quarto in 1522, whilst this and the subsequent Venetian editions are octavos, apparently designed to accommodate the needs of a wider and less educated readership. ‘The Herbarius … was anonymous, a compilation from medieval writers and from certain classical and Arabian authors, the latter doubtless quoted from translations… It was intended to treat of cheap and homely remedies for the use of the poor, such as could be found in the woods and meadows’ (Hunt).

Like the Herbarius, the text is here arranged alphabetically depending on plants’ names, thus the order differs slightly from that of the original Latin. This edition has a new vernacular translation, interestingly including several linguistic elements typical of Northern Italian dialects, especially those around Venice. It is also the first to be illustrated with a different series of woodcuts, based on the Hortus Sanitatis wooblocks. Chapter 89, usually tackling the Matricaria, is here devoted to honey, while a new chapter numbered 151, on wine and vinegar, has been added. Both these two variations were provided with their own special illustrations, namely honeybees and a wine cellar. The remaining 149 woodcuts all depict plants, herbs and roots, showing in two cases a simple countryside background. The charming Virgin and Child illustration is copied from the Venice 1492 Decameron.

All these popular Italian herbals are very uncommon, but this edition in its first issue stands out for its exceeding rarity. It is quite remarkable that such a popular book was bound so richly.

Only one perfect copy recorded in Italy (Salerno, private collection), possibly another defective in Oxford and in the US (Cincinnati). Not in BM STC It., Adams, Brunet, Graesse, Durling nor Wellcome. EDIT16, 76427; Hunt, 34; Klebs, 16 (no distinction between the two issues); Nissen, BBI 34.

L2000

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DORSTEN, Theodor

BENEDETTO VARCHI’S COPY

Botanicon

Frankfurt, Christian Egenolff, 1540.

£39,500

FIRST EDITION. Folio, ff. (10), 306. Predominantly Roman letter, some Greek and little Gothic; historiated initials, illustrated throughout with more than 300 woodcuts, all charmingly coloured by contemporary hand; some foxing, age yellowing, damp stain in lower margin of *ii, ink splash to *vir and in margin of 133v, clean tear at foot of 148v, marginal worm trail to final three gatherings. A good copy in early plain vellum boards; early title on spine and number on front cover, marbled edges; upper joint cracked, little hole on spine; contemporary autographs on title of ‘Benedictj Varchij’ and ‘Lelij Bonsij’; annotation by Bonsi on 39v.

First and only edition of this beautifully illustrated herbal. One of the two printing variants, here the title has woodcut plants instead of printer’s device. All the numerous illustrations were consistently coloured, probably for the publisher. Theodor Dorsten (1492-1552) was a physician and botanist, as well as professor of medicine at the University of Marburg. In recognition of his contribution to botanic studies, Charles Plumier and Carl Linneus named Dorstenia a family of the Moraceae (mulberry or fig family). As Dorsten explains in the preface, he was commissioned by the renowned publisher of scientific books Christian Egenolff to expand and translate into Latin the Kreutterbuch von allem Erdtwaechs by Eucharius Rösslin, published in 1533. Dorsten’s herbal was expanded in its turn in 1557 by Egenolff’s son-in-law, Adam Lonicer.

The Botanicon provides a remarkable account of sixteenth-century botanic and pharmacopeial knowledge. It describes alphabetically hundreds of herbs, along with tubers, spices, fruits, nuts, a couple of mushrooms and some liquids very broadly speaking derived from plants, such as vinegar, resin, honey, but also asphalt, cheese and water. Entries comprise a detailed illustration, the different names in Greek, Latin and German, references from ancient and contemporary authorities, description of physical qualities and healing properties and often recipes for medicaments. Those who followed some of the misleading prescriptions must have suffered greatly. Bitumen is said to cure cancer when mixed with vinegar and stop women’s periods when combined with beaver’s secretion; inhaling its smoke is supposed to prevent mucus (probably), while one gets rid of tooth pain by chewing it (perhaps). Luckily, it was hard to find asphalt at the time. It was mainly collected on the shores of the Dead Sea and thus was known as bitumen Iudaicum. The various uses suggested by Dorsten for cannabis (f. 60r) are equally noteworthy and maybe more appropriate.

This copy belonged to the famous Italian humanist Benedetto Varchi (1503-1565), as indicated by his faint autograph on the title. Varchi possessed vast and multifaceted knowledge. Member of several Italian circles and in particular the Florentine Academy, he was mainly interested in philosophy and literature. Yet, he did not disregard science. Among the 85 books identified as annotated by him, there are important treatises on maths, astronomy, veterinary and human medicine (see A. Siekiera, ‘Benedetto Varchi’, in Autografi dei letterati italiani: il Cinquecento, I, Rome 2009, pp. 337-357, at pp. 343-348). This copy was later acquired by a close friend of Varchi, Lelio Bonsi (1532-post 1569). The two exchanged some sonnets and Bonsi was included among the interlocutors of Varchi’s linguistic dialogue Ercolano. A member of the Florentine Academy and of the Order of St Stephen, Bonsi was also a legatee of Varchi’s will.

BM STC Ger., 253; Adams, D 859; VD 16, D 2442; Durling, 1203; Wellcome, I, 1861; Schmid, Kräuterbücher, 100; Pritzel, 2696.

K19

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