Repertorium iuris utriusque.

Nuremberg, Anton Koberger, 25 October 1483.


Folio. 3 parts in 2 volumes. 468 + 452 unnumbered ff. [collation on request]. Gothic letter, double column. Capital letters and intermittent initials largely supplied in red often with extensive decoration, vol. 1 with sketch for capital letter illumination on t-p. Light age yellowing, margins untrimmed, the odd insignificant ink or thumb mark, first and last leaf with scattered wormholes. Vol. 1 with faded inscriptions to ff. vviii and 2aviii. Vol. 2 with tiny wormholes to first few gatherings not affecting reading. Exceptional wide-margined copies on very good thick paper, crisp and clean, in highest quality C15 Bavarian blindstamped quarter pigskin over wooden boards, lacking clasps, two panels of diagonal double fillets with fleurons and basilisks, classification stamp or label ‘JU’ to spines, covers slightly wormed and rubbed, late C16 woodcut letter ‘A’ on upper cover of both vols, original ms title labels beneath. C16/C17 monogram ‘ES’, casemarks ‘12’ and ‘13’, and later ‘N. 736’, C18 ms. ex-libris ‘Monachij ad PP. Franciscanos’ and C19 inscription ‘Duplum’ to both vols, C15 ms. roundel in red ‘OSWS 1487’ at beginning of vol. 1 part II. Circular stamp of St Anthony’s convent (Munich) on vol. 2 upper edges.

A remarkably large, crisp copy on thick paper in two volumes of the second edition of this fundamental C15 work on jurisprudence. Of Bavarian provenance, its splendid C15 binding over wooden boards was made in the same workshop in Munich (Schwenke-Schunke II, S. 4 u. S. 275 f.) as Albertus Magnus’s ‘De abundantia exemplorum’ (Ulm, 1478) from the collection of the convent of St Anthony, now at the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. Giovanni Bertachini (?1448-c.1500) graduated in Law at the University of Padua, and, an experienced jurist and esteemed author, he was appointed lawyer of the Consistory by Pope Sixtus VI. Composed after 1471 and first printed in Rome in 1481, his ‘Repertorium’ is a monumental dictionary designed for scholars and practitioners of canon and civil (cum criminal) law. It is organised alphabetically by subject, for easy consultation, with hundreds of sections on juridical institutions (e.g., marriage), the legal status of individuals (e.g., fathers, archbishops, notaries), crimes (e.g., murder), and situations in which contracts are signed (e.g., sales, inheritance). Every section lists dozens of legal situations pertaining to specific juridical areas. For instance, a father, who can be natural, adoptive, and so on, can repudiate his son for numerous reasons, which are all listed as separate entries. For each entry, Bertachini provides references to the most important legal compendia which elaborate on the given subject, from Justinian’s ‘Institutiones’ to Guillaume Durand’s ‘Speculum iudiciale’ (c. 1271-1291) and Baldus’s C14 commentary to the ‘Codex Iustinianus’. Bertachini discusses unusual questions like the problematic legal status of hermaphrodites, as the coexistence of different sexes involved the concurrence of conflicting legal rights. The ‘Repertorium’ explained, among other things, that the Christian names of hermaphrodites had to reflect their prevalent masculine or feminine blood ‘serum’ (believed to determine a person’s biological sex). This understanding of hermaphroditism was still current in C18 studies on biological heredity. Bertachini’s legal encyclopaedia was extremely successful and influential, with ten editions appearing in the fifteenth century. 

The complex provenance of these volumes is traceable to Bavaria, where they were printed, bound, and preserved at least until the mid-C19. The red ink letters OSWS are probably an unidentified rubricator’s monogram unusually styled in the form of a circle with initials rather than a signature. If so, the rubrication of at least the first part can be dated to 1487. After the second half of the C16, these volumes were possessed by ‘ES’, probably a lawyer and likely responsible for the woodcuts ‘A’ taken from a German book of initials modelled on letters published by Gabriele Giolito in Venice in 1557. Some of ES’s books were later acquired by the Franciscan convent of St Anthony in Munich. Two more books from the convent’s collection—Sulpitius’s ‘Corpus iuris civilis. Digestum vetus’ (Perugia, 1476) and Ubaldi’s ‘Lectura super Codice, Liber 6’ (Perugia, 1472), now at the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek—bear the ‘ES’ monogram and a ‘B’ on the cover after Giolito’s woodcut of 1564. The volumes likely remained in the convent until its abolition on the secularisation of Bavaria in 1802. The ex-libris ‘Monachij ad PP. Franciscanos’, which appears on many volumes from the convent, probably derives from an inventory made in the late C18 or early C19. After 1802, the volumes were acquired by the Royal Library in Munich and catalogued as duplicates, like thousands of other books from Bavarian monasteries. Librarians noted ‘Duplum’ in ink and ‘Duplum an[n]i 1483’ in pencil on the volumes. The same inscriptions appear on another 1483 copy of the ‘Repertorium’ (now at the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek) once belonging to the convent. This copy was sold by the Library after the mid-C19.

Only Library of Congress (parts I, II only) and Syracuse (part I only) recorded copies in the US.

H *2982; GW 4153; BSB-Ink B-386; Goff B-498.


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La Biblia.

[Basel], [Samuel Apiarius, Thomas Guarin], 1569.


FIRST EDITION. Large 8vo. pp. (xxx) cols. 1438, 544, 508 pp. (iii), †8 ***6 A-Z8 2A-2Y8 AA-RR8 a-q8. Roman letter, some Italic and Hebrew, numbered double columns. Woodcut printer’s device to t-p, full and half page woodcuts of Ezekiel’s visions to preface, woodcut initials. Light age yellowing, couple of small water or ink splashes, a few early marginal annotations, tiny ink burn to a few leaves interlinear or affecting one letter (Hh-Hhii, Ttiv, AAiiii, CCvii, hiv-i), small worm trail to final gathering and pastedown. A good, well-margined copy in vellum over boards c. 1600, upper joint cracked, lacking ties. Front pastedown from C16 German broadside in Gothic letter with woodcuts. T-p with C19 casemarks in blue and black ink, label with red, stamps ‘Gräflich Rantzau-Breitenburg Bibliothek’, ‘Bibliothek des Guthes, Rohlstorf’, and unidentified arms with motto ‘Recte faciendo neminem timeas’, C16 inscription ‘D. Cornelio Bomb. Cass. Rein. Hisp. d. d.’, C18 autograph ‘Gesner’, early inscription ‘Habes hic manum interpretis horum Bibliarum Cassiodori de Reina Hispani vide Iselius allgemaines lexicon. b. IV. bl. 63. Impressus Thomas Guarinus Basil.’, C18 German ms notes c. 1800 on de Reina’s biography to initial pastedown.

Important presentation copy of the first edition of this seminal and controversial first translation of the entire Bible into Spanish. Cassiodoro de Reina (c. 1520-94) was a Hieronymite monk from Seville who converted to Lutheranism and fled the country to avoid persecution. His effigy was burned in an auto-da-fé in Seville whilst he was travelling around Europe, moving from London to Antwerp and Frankfurt. In his peregrinations, de Reina was inspired to publish under a pseudonym the first book on the coercive ‘arts’ of the Spanish Inquisition (‘Sanctae Inquisitionis hispanicae artes’) (Heidelberg, 1567), and met with scholars working on the Polyglot Bible. His Spanish translation is curiously prefaced by the decrees of the Council of Trent concerning prohibited books, giving the impression that the translator was Catholic, though he himself said he would have liked it published under the auspices of Elizabeth I. The Council did not accept de Reina’s comparative use of biblical texts other than the Vulgate, including the Hebrew Masoretic version in Pagnino’s translation of 1527, and the Ferrara Bible in Ladino from 1553. The letter to the reader is a masterful essay explaining his choice of sources and words, his scepticism concerning the theological dangers of translation, and his belief in the necessity of annotated vernacular bibles to allow those who did not know Latin to understand the divine mysteries and prophecies and abandon ignorance for truth. Records indicate that the edition was intended to comprise 2500 copies though the survival rate in Spanish-speaking lands must have been very low.

This copy was donated by the translator to Daniel Cornelis Bomberg (1525-86), son and successor of Daniel Bomberg, the most important printer of Hebrew and Rabbinic texts in Antwerp and Venice. Among them were the first complete and annotated Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds and one of de Reina’s sources—the Masoretic text of the Hebrew bible first printed by Daniel Bomberg in 1524—which explains his gift to Daniel’s son. The ‘Gesner’ mentioned in the t-p ex-libris was probably Johann Matthias Gesner (1691-1761), a scholar of classical literature and theology at Jena. There he befriended the Lutheran theologian Johann Franz Buddeus, the author (with Jacob Iselin) of the ‘Allgemeines Historisches Lexicon’ (1709) referenced on the t-p of this copy.

The initial pastedown is a copy of Berthel Beham’s broadside ‘Die zwölf Vagranten’ (Nuremberg, 1524) in its 1570 reprint as ‘Ermanung für die Jugend’ by Samuel Apiarius in Basel. Apiarius cooperated with Guarinus in the printing of this edition of the ‘Biblia’. The use of Apiarius’s broadside in the pastedown of this copy may suggest that it was also bound in his shop.

BM STC Sp. p. 27; Brunet I, 896; Darlow and Moule 8472.


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Institutio Christianae religionis.

Strasbourg, Wendelin I Rihel, 1545.


Folio. pp. (xliv) 505. Roman letter, side notes in italic, occasional Greek. Woodcut printer’s device to t-p, decorated initials. Light age browning, water stain to lower outer corner of last two leaves, one old marginal repair, the odd thumb and marginal ink mark, small wax spots to t-p not affecting text, single wormhole to upper margin of first few gatherings, ms title to fore-edge. Very good copy in contemporary calf over bevelled wooden boards, lacking clasps, finely blind-tooled to a three-panel design, fleurons and all’antica motifs to centre, title above, figures of Charles V, Ferdinand, King of Bohemia, and Andreas de Auria (Andrea Doria) to outer panel, spine blind-tooled to compartments, upper joint a bit cracked, slightly defective at head. Extensive C16 Latin marginalia in at least three hands, one in red, C19 ex-libris and casemark to front pastedown, C16 ex-libris ‘Ambrosius Moibanus Possessor M. Sulomoni Frenzetio Affini suo, eiusque Filijs ddt per Eptam manu sua Witeberga Wratislavia scripta Anno 70. 16 Julij’ to t-p.

Very good, handsomely bound copy of this immensely influential work by Jean Calvin (1509-1564), a French theologian who contributed to the introduction of the Reformation to France and Switzerland. First published in Latin in 1536, the ‘Institutio’ presented a systematic analysis of Protestant doctrines with the purpose of dissociating the new religious ideas from attacks against established political authority launched by the Anabaptists and condemned by Francis I, to whom the work is dedicated. In this third, expanded Latin edition the twenty-one chapters discuss fundamental theological questions like the knowledge and understanding of God’s divine nature, the doctrines of justification by faith alone and of predestination—which differentiated Calvin’s thought from Luther’s. His influential theories inspired, among others, the religious and political ideas of the French Huguenots and the Scottish, English, and Irish Presbyterians.

The elegant and uncommon early C16 binding, the detail of which remains very crisp, celebrates the political and religious pre-eminence of the Holy Roman Empire over the Ottomans. It portrays Emperor Charles V, Ferdinand, King of Bohemia, and Andreas de Auria (Andrea Doria)—this being his sole recorded occurrence on German bindings according to the Einbanddatenbank. Andrea Doria (1466-1560), a most successful admiral of the Republic of Genoa, was in the service of Charles V from 1528 to the 1550s, fighting the Ottomans and helping him to strengthen his hold over Italy. Stylistically the rolls may be older than the book, as the costumes appear to date from the 1530s, when Charles V and Andrea Doria defeated the Ottomans in Tunis, and Ferdinand withheld their invasion of Hungary—events which the binding may be celebrating with images of the victors.

The remarkable provenance of this copy is traceable to the Lower Silesian city of Breslau (Wrocław). The first owner was Ambrosius Moibanus (1494-1554), an influential Lutheran theologian who studied at Cracow and Wittenberg, where he met Melanchthon. He was pastor at St Elizabeth’s Church in Breslau from 1525, and among the first to introduce the Reformation into Silesia. Moibanus wrote a Catechism, hymns, and epistles (some to Calvin concerning the reception of the Reformation in Hungary and Poland). He strongly believed in the importance of women’s education, which he promoted at his parish school. The second ex-libris is of his fifth son, Ambrosius (1546-1598). He taught theology in Wittenberg, became pastor at St Elizabeth’s, and was in possession of his father’s books by 1569 as stated on the t-p of an incunabulum now at Harvard. In 1570 the younger Ambrosius donated this copy to his brother-in-law, M. Salomon Frenzel von Friedenthal (1529-1602), and his sons, including the future humanist Salomon Frencelius. M. Salomon was appointed pastor of St Elizabeth’s in 1567, and left Breslau for Brzeg in 1571. The annotations in this copy reflect the interests of its Protestant readers. It was probably Moibanus the elder who annotated sections rejecting as ‘error et stultitia’ the doctrines of the Anabaptists, whose persecution he encouraged.

Hanover College, Fordham, Huntington, and Princeton copies recorded in the US.

BM STC Ger. p. 174; VD 16; Index Aureliensis 129.782; Wien NB III, C 60. Not in Brunet or Graesse. See P. Konrad, Dr. Ambrosius Moibanus ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Kirche und Schule Schlesiens im Reformationszeitalter (Halle, 1891).


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A Paradox. Prooving, that the inhabitants of the isle called Madagascar, or St. Laurence, …are the happiest people in the world.

London, for Nathaniell Butter, 1640.


FIRST EDITON. 4to. Two parts in one. pp. [xxxviii]. A⁴(-A1) B⁴ D-F⁴. Roman letter. small woodcut ornament on second title, floriated woodcut initials, typographical headpieces and ornaments, woodcut tail-piece. Light age yellowing, cut close in upper margin, trimming the odd headline, other margins good, paper flaw in lower blank margin of Leaf B1. A good, unsophisticated copy, stab bound, in limp vellum, recased.

First edition of Hamond’s fascinating account of the island of Madagascar; sent by the East India Company to assess the feasibility of colonising the island, Hamond produced these two reports. The first comprises a description of the island, its climate and indigenous people while the second relays the benefits it would have to offer as an outpost for servicing the company’s ships en route for the Persian Gulf and the Far East. “Hamond, author and explorer, published a translation of Ambroise Paré’s ‘Methode de traicter les Playes faictes par Harquebuses et aultres batons a feu,’ 1617, 4to. He was in the service of the East India Company, and was employed by them to explore Madagascar and report on the advisability of annexing the island, of which he gave a glowing description.” DNB Hamond spent four months on the island, as a surgeon. However his treatise portrays an exaggerated prospect of it, stating that “for wealth and riches, no Island in the world can be preferred before it. As for gold, silver, pearle and precious jems, questionlesse the Island is plentifully stored with them… great quantities of Aloes… the first fruits of a most plentifull harvest, which is better than the gleanings of America”. “Early descriptions of Madagascar and it’s vegetation illustrate the kind of attractions that tempted colonisers and traders to undertake arduous voyages to the island in pursuit of advancement. Walter Hammond, .. spent some time on Madagascar in 1630, (and) published a pamphlet in 1640 entitled ‘A paradox….’… He drew attention to its strategic use as a useful port of call to and from the East Indies, and to the fertility of its soil. By this time, Hammond had resigned his post in the company and was clearly writing tracks to encourage rivals to challenge his monopoly. His next attempt, ‘Madagascar the richest and most fruitful island in the world’ (1643), also makes a strong case for colonisation.” Margarette Lincoln. British Pirates and Society, 1680-1730

“In his desire to present Madagascar and its allegedly primitive peoples as a semblance of the Garden of Eden, Hamond’s writing can be seen as a precursor of the eighteenth-century salute to the noble savage” (ODNB).

A very good copy of this fascinating pamphlet one of the earliest descriptions of Madagascar.

STC 12735. ESTC S103773.


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JUNIUS, Hadrianus

Nomenclator octilinguis omnium rerum propria nomina continens,

[Geneva], Excudebat Iacobus Stœr, 1602.


8vo. pp. [xvi], 634, [lxxiv]. [par.]⁸, A-2X⁸, 2Y². Double column. Roman letter, some Greek, Gothic and Italic. Title in red and black, small woodcut printer’s device, grotesque woodcut initials, head and tail-pieces. Light age yellowing, very minor light water-stain in lower outer corner in places. A very good, clean copy in contemporary vellum over boards, yapp edges.

Excellent edition of this important polyglot dictionary, finely printed in Geneva by Jacob Stoer, and edited by Hermann Germberg. The arrangement is alphabetical by topic, then alphabetically within each topic; polyglot entires are arranged under Latin terms, with preliminaries in Latin. Hadrianus Junius (1511–1575), also known as Adriaen de Jonghe, was a Dutch physician, classical scholar, translator, lexicographer, antiquarian, historiographer, emblematist, school rector, and Latin poet. He attended both the Crown Prince of Denmark and the Duke of Norfolk, and was singled out by Lipsius as the most learned Dutchman after Erasmus. This polyglot dictionary was Junius’ most successful and influential book, often re-edited with many further adaptions. It is thematic, and especially strong on terms used in medicine, zoology, botany, etc., but also music, architecture, warfare, gastronomy, dress, weights and measures and the book world. “In early modern Europe, two main types of onomasiological dictionaries can be distinguished. The first type primarily has practical and didactic objectives. In spite of Junius’ didactic claims presented in his preface, the Nomenclator belongs to a second group of topical dictionaries, which are less practical and more scholarly orientated. In comparison to the first type, these dictionaries, which often included old Greek, tend to be more comprehensive in volume and more methodical in classification and systematisation. Many dictionaries of the second type are called Nomenclator, and Junius’ Dictionary probably ranks as it’s best known exponent. .. In addition to the Latin headwords, Greek, German, Dutch, French, Italian, Spanish, and English translations are offered. … Of course, Junius made use of several sources (which are listed in the preface), but his dictionary is by no means derived from an existing one. As in many other early modern topical dictionaries, the overwhelming majority of concepts included as lemmas are concrete objects (resulting in a considerable number of substantive nouns). It is interesting to note that the number of technical concepts (especially in connection with diseases and illnesses) is considerably larger than the amount of ‘normal’ vocabulary that is included. As Gabriele Stein suggested, this is most likely the result of Junius’ training as a physician. ..In only a small number of lemmas do the eight languages occur together. English is included in no more than about 250 entries. As knowledge of English on the European continent was very limited in the sixteenth century, this is perhaps not surprising. .. Apart from the headworks and the translations, Junius enriched many lemmas with supplementary information, moving in the direction of encyclopaedic dictionary. In addition .. some entries feature an etymological explanation” Dirk van Miert ‘The Kaleidoscopic Scholarship of Hadrianus Junius (1511-1575).’

ESTC S126703.


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of the Generall Assemblie of the Church of Scotland.

Glasgow, by George Anderson, 1638.


FIRST EDITION, second issue, quire ‘A’ partially reset. 4to. 8 unnumbered ll.  A-B4. Roman letter, some italic, woodcut head and tail pieces, large historiated initial with two figures surrounded by thistles, t-p with woodcut figure with head and hands made of thistles. Light age yellowing. A good copy, crisp and clean in marbled paper boards, upper margin a little short on last leaf.

The first work to be printed in Glasgow, it marks not only an outstanding event in the ecclesiastical history of Scotland, but an important stage in the bibliographical history of that city. The famous meeting of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, at Glasgow in 1638, lasted from the 21st November to the 6th December. In all 26 diets, were held in the Cathedral; “none had gowns, but many had doublets, swords, and daggers and the jostling, and squeezing was such that honest Baillie declares that if men had behaved in his house so rudely as they did in the House of God, he would have turned them downstairs.” The 150 ministers and 100 elders, who made up the Assembly, were determined to resist Charles I’s attempts to impose a version of the Anglican prayer book. They defied instructions from the King’s High Commissioner, the Marquess of Hamilton to dissolve, then went further in defying his authority by abolishing epicopapcy in Scotland. Laud’s Prayer Book and the new Book of Canons were condemned as unlawful, having not been sanctioned by the Kirk; the “popish” Five Articles of Perth, which had been reluctantly accepted by the General Assembly of 1618, were similarly abolished. All Scottish bishops were deposed and excommunicated. Having affirmed the Kirk’s power to summon annual assemblies and calling one to meet in July 1639, the Glasgow Assembly dissolved itself. The Covenanter movement had effectively seized power in Scotland. This important pamphlet, by the elected clerk, Sir A Johnston, protested against the Royal proclamation of 29 November 1638 dissolving the Assembly, convened only eight days earlier.

George Anderson established the first printing press in Glasgow. He was invited by the Burghesses of the City, who appointed him burgh printer and provided him with a salary, he also printed for Zachary Boyd, the vice Chancellor of Glasgow University. This was his most famous work. After his death his widow Agnes took over the press and continued printing under the name “the Heirs of George Anderson.”    

STC. 22047.5. ESTC S116942. Records of the Glasgow Bibliographical Society I. p.106.  Aldis 923. Maclehose ‘the Glasgow University Press’, pp. 20-22.


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MARKHAM, Gervase

The inrichment of the vveald of Kent: or, A direction to the husband-man,

London, Printed by Anne Griffin for Iohn Harison,1636.


4to. pp. [iv], 24. A², B⁸, C⁴. Roman letter some Italic. Small woodcut printer’s device on title, woodcut initials and headpieces. Light age yellowing, the odd marginal mark or spot. A very good copy, crisp and clean, in marbled boards.

Third edition of this most interesting agricultural work, first published in 1625, concerning  improving the soils of the Weald of Kent. Much is taken verbatim from Markham’s earlier work on soil improvement, ‘farewell to husbandry’ but here is of great interest as it has applied his techniques specifically to a particular region of England. “In the pamphlet, ’The inrichment of the weald of Kent’ of 1625, the Author advocated a systematic program for improving the productivity of the ‘unapt’ soils of the region. It was to be based on the regular spreading of Marl (which was commonly found in the Weald) to enrich the ground, and, equally important, the introduction of ley farming to the enclosed fields which have previously been used for either pasture or arable. A complete dressing of marl – the author recommended 300 to 500 loads per acre – would serve for 20 to 30 years: ‘your marlable grounds being ordered in this wise .. will continue to stand fruitfully either for corn or pasture’. The improver did not go into much detail about the cost of systematic marling, but gave the game away when he referred to the farm he had in mind. Under his scheme the ‘husbandman’ of 100 or 125 acres will plough a fifth or sixth of his land, leaving the rest to pasture, and after a few years the former arable would become pasture again, as former grassland was ploughed up for corn in turn. In the sixteenth century, however, the farm of 125 acres in the Weald was exceptional, and the improvers prescription, had it been widely known, was beyond the budget of most Wealden farmers. Nevertheless, such grandiose schemes for dressing both the arable and pasture land of whole farms speak loudly of the recurring reality of Wealden farming: most Wealden soils were poor and unproductive compared to nearby arable regions like northeast Kent.” Michael Zell ‘Industry in the Countryside: Wealden Society in the Sixteenth Century’.

“Many books on agriculture and gardening were published during the century, but from the historical point of view the most important are those of Markham, because they appeared at an early stage in the new development, were widely read, and full of useful information and sound advice. Markham was a too prolific writer, but one can forgive his constant repetition and shameless re-issuing of unsold books under a new title for the great influence his writings had on English agriculture.” Anne Wilbraham ‘The Englishman’s Food: Five Centuries of English Diet’.

STC 17365. ESTC S120912. Poynter p. 150 No. 32 (1625 edn).


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[F., N.]

The husbandmans fruitfull orchard. Shewing diuers rare new secrets for the true ordering of all sortes of fruite in their due seasons. ..

London : Imprinted [by R. Bradock] for Roger Iackson, 1608.


4to. pp. [iv], 28. Black letter, some Roman and Italic. Historiated woodcut initials, woodcut headpieces, Cornelius J. Hauck’s bookplate on pastedown, bibliographical note (concerning the rarity of this edition) tipped on fly. Title-page and last leaf a little soiled and damp stained, headline fractionally shaved in the Epistle to the Reader, light age yellowing, the occasional mark or spot. A good copy in modern half calf over marbled paper boards.

The exceptionally rare 1608 reissue of ‘The Fruiterers Secrets’ first published in 1604, located by ESTC in one other copy only, at the British Library, with the dedication cancelled and with a cancel title-page. This copy has the title-page corrected to read “rare” for “care” (this is uncorrected in some copies, see STC). The work is a wonderfully written and most practical handbook on the gathering, picking, sorting and storing of various fruits, including cherries, apples, pears and quinces, and by extension the work also gives a most interesting insight into the flourishing fruit trade that took place in late Elizabethan England, particularly around London. The author, the unidentified ’N.F.’, gives an interesting account in his preface of the importation of grafts brought from France and the Netherlands, that helped to develop English fruit trees (“especially pippins; before which time there was no right pippins in England”) by Richard Harris, who was fruiterer to Henry VIII. Harris created a fruit orchard at Tenham in Kent on the King’s ground using these foreign grafts. The author describes this orchard as “the chiefe Mother of all other orchards for those kindes of fruites in Kent, and of divers other places. And afore that these said grafts were fetched out of Fraunce, and the Lowe Countries, although there was some store of fruite in England, yet there wanted both rare fruite, and lasting fine fruit.”

The work deals in turn with cherries, (“foure sorts here in England – flemish cherries, English cherries, Gascoyne cherries and blacke cherries.”), all other stone fruit (apricots peaches, plums damsons etc), pears, apples, wardens, and quinces. The author was clearly a ‘fruiterer’ in that he gives detailed instructions as to the various methods of storing each fruit, and how to transport fruit by waterways. Most of the work concerns picking and storing but it also gives advice on the growing of fruit trees, particularly the placement of trees and the soil in which certain trees will produce better fruit. His principal concern however was that once “the great paines that have been taken, in planting, setting, grafting, & proyning, whereby a great deal of ground hath been taken up, which might serve for other good purposes, I thought good to shew what course might bee taken, that means Labours be not lost, nor such great quantity of ground wherin fruit doth growe, lye in waste (as it were) and become unprofitable, through ignorance of well handling the fruite, after God hath given it.”

An exceptionally rare edition of this very charming work.

ESTC S119936. (one copy only). STC 10651. Not in Lowndes.


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Relation du Voyage de Moscovie, Tartarie, et de Perse, .. depuis l’an 1633, jusques en l’an 1639.

A Paris, chez Pierre Aubouin, 1656.


FIRST EDITION thus. 4to. pp. [xxxviii] 543-[i]. (-)1, ẽ4, ĩ4, õ4, ũ4, *2, A-3Y4. Roman letter, some Italic. Woodcut initials, head and tail-pieces, typographical headpieces and ornaments, contemporary manuscript ex dono on title “don. d. Carolus bonodin Can. arch. bibliothecca eclesia noniam 1663”, small C19th library stamp in blank margin below, early shelf mark on pastedown. Light age yellowing, very minor water-stain in blank upper margin in places, the rare marginal spot or mark. A very good copy, clean and well margined, in contemporary vellum over thin boards.

A very good copy of the first French translation of this important travel account to Moscow and Persia by Adam Olearius, German scholar, and secretary to an embassy sent by the small German state of Holstein to explore an overland trade route with Persia. The first embassy was dispatched to Russia in 1633-34 to secure the tsar’s permission to travel, and ship through his realm. The second was sent in 1635 to complete the deal with the shah of Persia. Although the commercial mission failed, the embassy was successful in the remarkable information gathered by Olearius. The embassy started from Gottorp in 1633 and travelled, by Hamburg, to Moscow where they concluded an advantageous treaty with Tsar Michael, and returned forthwith to Gottorp to procure the ratification of this arrangement from the duke, before proceeding to Persia. Their voyage down the Volga and over the Caspian Sea was slow and hindered by accidents, but they reached the Persian court at Isfahan and were received by the Safavid king, Shah Safi.

“The first edition of Olearius’ account of his travels was published in 1647 in Schleswig. An extended and restructured edition appeared in 1656: .. The [work] is divided into six “books” of which the fourth treats the mission’s route up to Isfahan, with detailed descriptions of Ardabil, Qazvin, Qom, Kāšān, and their stay at the Safavid court. Book five is an encyclopedic description of Persia, covering aspects such as geography, fauna and flora, political institutions, manners, customs and clothing, Safavid history, education, language and script, trade, and religion. The return journey from Isfahan is the subject of book six. Amongst the numerous ethnographic observations, mention should be made of Olearius’ depiction of the ʿAsura’ ceremonies and other Shiite rituals, including the recitation of a “Machtelnamae” and the celebration of ʿAli’s designation as the Prophet’s successor (“Chummekater;” p. 435ff., 456ff.). Of interest for the history of printing is the regular insertion of Persian and Turkish quotations in the original script, serving as a model for the later account by Engelbert Kaempfer. .. “Olearius provided the first comprehensive description of Persia since antiquity, but his achievements appear less significant when compared with the far broader range and experience of later travellers who wrote after him in the course of the 17 century” (Lohmeier, p. 59). Still, all later travelogues are heavily indebted to him and his work can be studied as a starting point for the genre. His outstanding contribution to the cartography of Persia is his Nova Delineatio Persiae et Confiniorvm veteri longe accurator edita Anno 1655, the first realistic map of Iran that, in particular, corrects the location and form of the Caspian Sea. ..He also acted as editor of books composed by other members of the Holstein-mission or travellers associated with the Duchy of Gottorp..” Encyclopedia Iranica.

This enlarged edition was also translated into Dutch, Italian and English. A very good copy of the first edition in French.

BM STC Fr. C17th. Brunet IV 178. Graesse V 18. Blackmer.


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LAWRENCE, Anthony, and Beale, John

Nurseries, orchards, profitable gardens, and vineyards encouraged, the present obstructions removed..

London, printed for Henry Brome at the Gun in St. Pauls Church-Yard, 1677.


FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. [ii], 28. Roman letter, some Black. Title within box rule, floriated woodcut initial, small woodcut in text. Light age yellowing. A very good copy, crisp and clean, in modern tan pigskin over thin boards, covers bordered with a single blind rule, title and author blind stamped on upper cover, with blind fleuron above.

Exceptionally rare first edition of these two most interesting letters addressed to Henry Oldenburg, secretary to the royal society, concerning the improvement of nurseries, gardens and orchards, including vines, in Britain. Lawrence, in the first letter states that Cambridge horticulturists should study the methods of other countries in order to improve their own production, remarking on the recent gains made in Oxfordshire as a result of Mr Austens books on horticulture, which he proceeds to list. He also remarks that the promotion of nurseries, one for each region, would be for the general good, and would promote wealth throughout the kingdom. The second letter, by John Beale, also concerns the use of fruit for making alcohols using sugar, but mostly concerns the planting of vines in England. It suggests that the best place to start to improve vines would be by importing them from the best wine growing areas in Europe, France, Germany and Italy. (It also refers to Spanish and wines from Smyrnia). Remarkably he also suggests looking at native vines grown in America.“And since trade and navigation hath enlarged our Correspondence so far, we should send to the other side of the World for some variety of the best grapes in America, The Canada-grape is in some esteem here. But what is that alone to the infinite variety of better vines, even in New England, which cultivate themselves without mans aid; of better yet in Virginia and Carolina. I must also name Barbados, Jamaica, &c.” He then discusses, in a remarkable passage, the wholesale exchange of seeds and plants between England and America. “But what trifles are these, in comparison of those Trees, Fruits, Vines, and Herbs, I must say, noble, enlivening, restorative and invigorating Pot-herbs, which may be even in our American Plantations, and easily obtained for us, or, at least, their Seeds, for trial. Besides what Mr. Josseline hath written, I have seen such a wonderful Catalogue of all these kinds, from New England alone, by a very intelligent person, that it forced me to cry out, ‘O, how lazy have we been for a whole Age! One said, It was but a step or two, and a gentle swing from Whitehall-stairs to Barbadoes, or to Jamaica. Barbados the fairest Garden that ever was yet in the world; … One ingenious Nursery-man in each of the English Colonies, corresponding with ingenious Seedmen in Lombard-street, and in Bristol, and in all our chief Port-Towns, (to try all the Seeds we could send them, and to return back to their native soyl the Seeds of all our Vegetables which prospered in any of their soyls, and we doing the like to them,) by many returns upon trials, again and again, here and there, would make the work short, and wonderful, and (doubtless) exceeding profitable, and shew us more than any of our Botanic Writers ever dreamt of.”

A most interesting and important work, Extremely rare: According to ABPC no copies have appeared at auction in at least past last thirty years.

ESTC R11301. Wing L651. Henrey 225. Not in Sabin, Oberlé, Simon, Vicaire or Biting.


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