PAULINUS, Laurentius.

SCARCE SWEDISH IMPRINT

Historiae Arctoae libri tres.

Strengnes, Typis & impensis authoris; excudebat Johannes L. Barkenius, [1636].

£2,650

FIRST EDITION. Small 4to. pp. (xx) 415 (xvii) 168 (xvi) (i 4 cancelled as usual). Roman letter, with Italic. T-p within woodcut architectural frame. T-p dusty and remargined to verso, not touching text, next torn and repaired without loss, a few old marginal repairs at beginning and end, slight yellowing, occasional minor marginal spotting, a few ll. a little dusty. A good
copy in C18 half vellum over marbled boards, a bit worn. C17 inscription Laur. Qvist [Laurentius/Lars Qvist] and couple of early casemarks to front pastedown, Swedish binder’s inscription ‘Carl Friedrich Borg bok bindaren’ 1735 to inner spine lining.

A good copy of the first edition of ‘the first extended, comprehensive history of Sweden’ (‘Nordisk’, 906) and ‘the most ambitious piece of [Swedish] historiography’ of the C17 (Kalevich, ‘Compilation’, 6). Laurentius Paulinus Gothus (1565-1646) was Archbishop of Strengnes, Sweden. In 1622, he promoted the establishment of the first printing press of the town, with the financial assistance of King Gustavus Adolphus. The present is one of the most famous outputs of this provincial press (Cotton, ‘Gazetteer’, 272). ‘Historia’ provides an account spanning the Creation, as most C16 national histories, to the death of Gustavus Adolphus in 1632; it also includes a geographical survey of Sweden and a summary of the most important historical events. Whilst Paulinus did not engage in fresh archival research, he produced a major compilation of all available sources, especially Olaus Magnus. The account of early history includes astronomical observations and criticism of astrological forecasts, as well as the first migrations to Sweden after the Flood. It is followed by a description of Swedish territories, including Lapland, and of Finland, Norway, Livonia, Estonia, Lithuania, Denmark and even Muscovy; it then focuses on Sweden, discussing its politics (to Gustavus Adolphus), religion (especially the extirpation of paganism), customs and laws. The second section follows the chronology of Swedish kings from before the Flood to 1492. The catalogue of the ‘Bibliotheca Heberiana’ (1835, n.3320) states that copy was ‘very scarce, with the suppressed leaves’, pointing the reader to ‘Lord Strangford’s note’ on the subject. Percy Smythe, 6th Viscount Strangford (1780-1820) was ambassador to Sweden in 1817-20. We have not been able to identify this note or discover anything about suppression; it may concern i 4 which is cancelled.

Minnesota, Illinois and Yale copies recorded in the US.
Graesse V, 172; Brunet IV, 444 (footnote); Estreicher, Bib. Polska, 217; Bib. Livoniae historica, 2020. H. Cotton, A Typographical Gazetteer (Oxford, 1831); Nordisk Familjebok (Stockholm, 1888); A. Vetushko-Kalevich, Compilation and Translation (Lund, 2019).

L3334

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LLWYD, Humphrey

The breuiary of Britayne. Together with the geographicall description of the same.

London, By Richard Iohnes, 1573.

£9,500

FIRST EDITION thus. 8vo. ff. [xxii], 96 leaves. A 2*² [par.] [par.]* B-N. Black, Italic and Roman letter. Title within typographical border, grotesque woodcut initials and tail-pieces, typographical ornaments, armorial bookplate of Albert Ehrman on pastedown, his library stamp with monogram A. E. on rear pastedown,  bookplate of Fox Pointe collection on rear f.ep. Very light age yellowing. A fine copy, crisp and clean with good margins, a few deckle edges, in handsome early 19th century vellum, covers bordered with a gilt scrolled rule, fleurons gilt to corners, central arabesque gilt, red morocco label gilt lettered on spine, very slightly soiled.

First English translation of a historical, linguistic and topographical tour of Britain, originally sent by the dying author to the famous geographer-mathematician Abraham Ortelius of Antwerp, that he might “Take therfore, this last remembrance of thy Humfrey, and for ever Adieu” (Llwyd’s dedication). The Latin text (Adams L 1378) was published in Cologne in 1572.

Llwyd (1527-1568), geographer, astrologer, antiquary and M.P. for Denbigh, was the private physician to Henry Fitzalan, 12th Earl Arundel, a book-collector whose library, much of which is now in the British Library, contained not only many of Cranmer’s library-books but also arguably the finest geography collection of Elizabethan times, to whose assembly Llwyd lent his expertise, along with his friend John Leland. Llwyd also numbered amongst his friends Elisabeth I’s astrologer Dr. John Dee. His original Latin text was described by Lowndes (IV, 1377) as an “excellent work,’ much followed by Camden’ (Nicholson)”.

Twynne (1543-1613), physician, master of Canterbury free school, and another friend of Dee, made this translation with a full index. He includes a list of authors cited and, at the end, a list of ‘Certayne Welsh, or rather true British woordes, conuerted into Latin by the Author, & now translated into English’. “Llwyd] wrote the Commentarioli Britannicae descriptionis fragmentum, a short historical and geographical description of Britain which he dispatched to Ortelius on 3 August 1568; it was published in Cologne in 1572 and is dedicated to Ortelius. It was translated by Thomas Twyne under the title The Breviary of Britayne and published in 1573. It was the first attempt to compile a chorographia of Britain as a whole. Central themes of Llwyd’s work are his defence of Geoffrey of Monmouth (particularly countering the attacks of Polydore Vergil), and his belief in the integrity of the early British church.” DNB.

“For Humphrey Llwyd, writing in or before 1568, the Welsh are ‘the very true Britaynes by birth’, a nation which, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, could trace its descent back through Arthur to Britain’s founding father Brutus, grandson of the Trojan warrior, Aeneas. Llwyd writes that his welsh contemporaries had inherited the warlike spirit of their Trojan ancestors and were themselves ‘most valiant in warlike affayres’, a Welsh myth of origin that persisted into the seventeenth century and found echo even among writers, like Camden, otherwise sceptical Galfridian lore.” Stewart Mottram ‘Ruin and Reformation in Spenser, Shakespeare, and Marvell.’

A fine copy of this rare work from the library of Albert Ehrman, distinguished collector and generous benefactor whose collection was partly presented to the Cambridge University Library in 1978 and now forms the so-called “Broxbourne Collection” (after the village of Broxbourne, Hertfordshire, where Ehrman lived); the rest of the library was sold at auction (Sotheby, Parke, Bernet & Co., 14 Nov. 1977-8). See `The Broxbourne Library’, BLR 10 (1979), 78-80. Nicolas Barker, `Albert Ehrman’, Book Collector, 19 (1970), 455-64; `News and comments’, Book Collector, 27 (1978), 83-7, 552-3; John Bidwell, `Albert Ehrman’, in Grolier 2000: A Further Grolier Club Biographical Retrospective in Celebration of the Millennium (New York, 2000), 84-7.

ESTC S108126. STC, 16636. Lowndes IV 1377.

L3000

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LEO AFRICANUS [AL-HASSAM BID MAHAMMAD AL-WAZZAN AL ZAYGATI]

A geographical historie of Africa, written in Arabicke and Italian by Iohn Leo a More, … Translated and collected by Iohn Pory,.

London, [Printed by Eliot’s Court Press] impensis Georg. Bishop, 1600

£25,000

FIRST EDITION thus. Folio, pp. [viii], 60; 420. [pi]⁴, a-e⁶, A-O⁶, Q-2N⁶. Double page engraved map. Roman letter some Italic. Woodcut printer’s device on title, historiated and floriated woodcut initials, typographical ornaments, “Liber Thomas Smith. pre. 5S-6D– Anno Salutis 1623” at head of second leaf. Title page and verso of last a little dusty, minor marginal soiling at edges of first few leaves, quires A and M a little shorter, rare marginal stain or spot. A very good copy, the map in good dark impression, in handsome contemporary calf, covers bordered with a triple blind rule, spine with blind hatched raised bands, blind ruled in compartments, well rebacked and laid down, holes for ties, a.e.r.

The important first edition in English, translated by John Pory, of this seminal classic of African topography and ethnography. Leo Africanus was an early C16 traveller who recorded in great detail the life of many remote North African kingdoms. He was born in Granada but in the 1490s his family moved to Fez in Morocco where Leo ultimately entered the service of the Sultan who sent him on commercial and diplomatic missions across northern and western Africa. In 1518 he was returning by sea from Istanbul and was captured, perhaps by Knights of Malta, who took him to Rome. There, under the patronage of Pope Leo IX he composed the present description of Africa, first published in Italian in 1550. It was a bestseller, put Leo at the centre of Roman intellectual life and remained one of Europe’s principal sources of knowledge of the Arab-African world for the next 400 years.

“It was translated into English in 1600 by John Pory. Pory’s letter ‘To the Reader’ tells the fascinating story of Leo’s life – a tale of complex interaction between Europe and Africa, Islam and Christianity. .. This book was important in that it was written by a Moorish man and well regarded by scholars. However Pory is aware that some readers at this time might distrust the writings of a ‘More’ and a ‘Mahumetan’ (or Muslim), and he reassures them of Leo’s sophistication: his ‘Parentage, Witte, Education, Learning, Emploiments, Travels, and his conversion to Christianitie’.” BL

It is very probable that Shakespeare was influenced by this work in his portrayal of Othello. “Pory’s account of Leo’s marvellous escape from ‘so manie thousands of imminent dangers’ might remind us of Othello’s tale of ‘hair-breadth escapes i’ th’ immanent deadly breach’. Like Leo, Othello tells of being ‘sold to slavery’ and we later learn that Othello was also a former Muslim, now baptised as a Christian. In his description of African people, Leo takes pains to give a balanced perspective, though it seems nonetheless stereotyped and prejudiced. Celebrating their ‘vertues’, he says Africans are ‘Most honest people … destitute of fraud and guile’. But ‘no nation in the world is so subject to jealousie’ (p. 40). In the unpleasant description of their ‘vices’, he says they are ‘very proud and high-minded, and woonderfully addicted unto wrath’. They are also ‘so credulous that they beleeve matters impossible which are told to them’ (p. 41) and promiscuous in wooing ‘divers maides’ before settling on a wife (pp.41–42). It is hard not see these qualities reflected in Shakespeare’s Othello, at least as Iago describes him. Exploiting the stereotypes that define the Moor in Venice, Iago talks of the ‘free and open nature’ that makes Othello think ‘men honest’ when they only ‘seem so’. He tells Roderigo he suspects ‘the lusty Moor’ of sleeping with Emilia, and plans to ‘put him into jealousy so strong’ that his anger will cloud his judgement.

Pory’s English translation (1600) was printed in the same year as the Moroccan ambassador’s visit to London to negotiate a military alliance between English and African forces, with the hope of conquering Spain. In his letter to Sir Robert Cecil, Elizabeth I’s secretary, Pory exploits this opportunity to market the book as particularly current, saying ‘At this time especially I thought [it] would proove the more acceptable’.” BL

A handsome copy of this rare and influential first English edition

ESTC S108481. STC 15481. Luborsky & Ingram. Engl. illustrated books, 1536-1603, 15481. Sabin, 40047.

K178

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FORESTI, Giacomo Filippo

THE COLUMBUS EDITION

Nouissime hystoriarum omnium repercussiones.

Venice, Impressum per Albertinum De Lissona Vercellensem, 1503.

£12,500

FIRST EDITION thus. ff. 452, [x]. a-z, &, [9], [R], A-2G 2H 2I¹. Without last blank. “Woodcut coat of arms of the dedicatee, Cardinal Antoniotto Pallavicino, 170 x 130 mm., on the title page. Ninety-five woodcuts (including 47 repititions), 53 x 49 mm. to 147 x 146 mm. The four blocks of the Creation, Expulsion, Death of Abel, and the Tower of Babel are printed as full-page illustrations by the use of large border blocks with the sun and the moon and foliated side strips. These border pieces also enclose the first page of text leaf a3r. Geographical diagram including a floral border on a7r. (a T -O world map). The rest of the illustrations consist of city views in several sizes. The smaller blocks are repeated for several cities, although some have distinctive landmarks. The large blocks show Verona, Genoa, Rome Milan and Venice. .. Large white initials with flowers and foliage, one large initial F with Putti on a black ground; guide letters in spaces The dates are set in the margin, either side of a double rule. Roman letter, roman marginalia.” Entirely rubricated, extensive marginal notes in an early hand, mss inscription of the Benedictine monastery of Ettenheim-munster at head of t-p with their library stamp at foot, title mss in an early hand on upper cover. Light age yellowing, scattered single worm holes at beginning and end. A very good copy in contemporary south German pigskin over bevelled wooden boards, covers triple blind ruled to a panel design, stopped at corners with small fleuron, panels filled with lozenge, rose, small floriated panel, and banner stamps, spine with blind ruled raised bands, with four banner stamps in each compartment, remains of clasps, brass catches. Head of spine and upper corners very well restored. In folding box.

The first 16th-century edition of Foresti’s Chronicles, and the fifth illustrated edition to be printed in Italy, the first edition updated by Foresti until 1502 including a most important description of Columbus’ voyage. Foresti’s work is “a meritorious compilation, intended to serve for the correction and completion of all previous historical works, and was therefore named by its author Supplementum Chronicarum. He spent no little labour in making it authentic, and we find that each successive edition received alterations and improvements from his hand. The same studious care was extended to the illustrations. … Like Schedel’s Chronicle – of which indeed it was the immediate prototype, – the Supplementum contains views of the chief cities of the world, with some biblical pictures from the Old Testament at the beginning.” F. Lippmann, ‘The Art of Wood-engraving in Italy in the Fifteenth Century.’ The work is superbly illustrated with very many beautiful woodcuts.“The first illustrated edition printed at Venice is that of Bernardino Benalio, 1486. Eleven of the small views and the view of Genoa are the blocks cut for that edition. Benalio’s blocks passed to Bernardino Rizo, and the set was augmented for an edition of 1490. Most of the small blocks used here by Albertino, the Tower of Babel, and the large views except for Milan are in the 1490 edition. The creation, Expulsion and death of Abel are subjects from 1486, but Albertino’s blocks are different. The large view of Milan is new, an enlarged copy used for Milan in 1490 ..but also for other cities. ..” Mortimer. “In the chapter on Verona, there was substituted, for the fancy sketch of the 1486 Supplementum, a new and superior design, in which the amphitheatre, and the situation of the buildings around it, are correctly delineated. … Especially remarkable is the view of Rome, which made its appearance for the first time in the edition] which conveyed an actual copy from nature.” Lippmann. This woodcut of Rome from the 1490 edition, reused in this edition for the second time, is believed by Lippmann to be “The oldest view of that city”. The charming woodcut depicting construction of the Tower of Babel gives “an attractive illustration of building operations taken from contemporary Italian life.” Hind. ‘An Introduction to a History of Woodcut.’

The work includes a huge amount of most interesting information such as notes on the lives and works of Dante Alighieri and Petrarch; the invention of printing is recorded by Foresti under the year 1458 He states that while some believe the inventor to be Johann Gutenberg, others attribute the invention to Johann Fust or Nicolas Jenson. Of great importance this chronicle includes for the first time, dated 1493, a section entitled ‘De quattuor permaximis insulis in India extra orbem nuper inventis’ which describes the first and second Columbus voyages, based on his letter “Concerning the Islands Recently Discovered in the Indian Sea” including extracts from speeches on the subject by the Spanish ambassador. According to Harisse, Bibliotheca Americana Vetustissima, 42, Foresti’s account, first printed in this 1503 edition, “acquires a peculiar interest from the fact that it preceded the publication of Peter Martyr’s Decades,” Sabin also states that it is “the earliest considerable recognition of that important discoverer by any general author.”

A fine copy of this important and beautifully illustrated work.

BM STC It. C16 p. 273. Mortimer It. C16th 195. Sander I 920. Adams F748. Brunet I 787. Essling 349. Sabin 25083. “the earliest considerable recognition of that important discoverer (Columbus) by any general author.”Alden I 503/2.

L2988

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LLWYD, Humphrey. KROMER, Marcin.

IMPROBABLE COMBINATION

Commentarioli Britannicae descriptionis fragmentum.

Cologne, Agrippinae : apud Ioannem Birckmannum, 1572.

Polonia siue De situ, populis, moribus, magistratibus, & republica regn/i Polonici libri duo.

Cologne,  apud Maternum Cholinum, 1578.

£2,500

FIRST EDITIONS. Two works in one. 8vo. 1) ff. [viii], 79 [i.e. 78].[A-L8] last two leaves blank. 2) pp. [viii], 234 [i.e. 232]. 3 *, A-O, P.  Roman letter, some Italic. Small woodcut printer’s device on first t-p, floriated initial in the second. Light age yellowing some minor light browning and spotting in first volume, light water-stain at the end of second volume, second vol cut a little close in outer margin on a couple of leaves just touching a few sidenotes. Good copies in mid C17th speckled  English calf, covers bordered with a double blind ruled, blind hatched tool to corners, spine with raised bands, red morocco label gilt lettered.

Rare first edition of Llwyd’s geographical and historical description of Ancient Britain prefixed by his farewell letter to the cartographer Abraham Ortelius dated from Denbigh 30 August 1568, ending with a short Welsh vocabulary. An English translation by Thomas Twyne, ‘The Breuiary of Britayne,’ was published in the following year. “in August 1568, the Welsh scholar Humphrey Lloyd of Demby lay dying. Writing for the last time to his friend Abraham Ortelius in Antwerp, he reported that ‘a very perilous fever hath so torn this body of mine these ten continual days that I [have been] brought to despair of my life.’ Along with the letter Llwyd enclosed a pair of maps, one of Wales and one of England and Wales, destined for inclusion in Ortelius’s atlas. Llwyd further enclosed ‘certain fragments written with mine own hand which … (if God had spared me life) you should have received in better order,… These ‘fragments’ belonged to an unfinished topographical description of Britain, more than half of which was devoted to the history and description of Wales… Humphrey Llwyd was among the most gifted and provocative scholars of his generation. As MP for Denbigh he was instrumental in the passage of legislation for the translation of the Bible and Book of Common Prayer into the Welsh language. … Llwyd’s work left a lasting mark on the literatures of both England and Wales. It is unlikely that Camden’s great work would have taken quite the same form – or even borne the same title – without the prior example and influence of the Breviary” Philip Schwyzer ‘The breviary of Britain’. Introduction. “[Llwyd] wrote the Commentarioli Britannicae descriptionis fragmentum, a short historical and geographical description of Britain. .. It was the first attempt to compile a chorographia of Britain as a whole. Central themes of Llwyd’s work are his defence of Geoffrey of Monmouth (particularly countering the attacks of Polydore Vergil), and his belief in the integrity of the early British church.” DNB.

Llwyd’s important work is bound here with the first edition of another most interesting geographical work by Marcin Kromer on Poland. “Polish diplomat, bishop of of Warmia, historian, and polemicist on behalf of the counter Reformation. Was born in Biecz and served as secretary to Archbishop Piotr Gamrat … When working in the Royal Chancellery he ordered and listed the most important royal archives in Cracow.  .. Kromer was active in political and diplomatic life (numerous legations) He was one of the most important figures in the Polish Counter Reformation .. . His major work, intended for foreign readership is his history of Poland from legendary times to 1506 De Origine et rebus gestis Polonorum…. In addition to De origine, he contributed a geographical and political description of Poland: Polonia (1577).” D.R. Woolf ‘A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing.’ The work is full of interesting details on the politics of early Poland: “

1) Shaaber, L335. Libri Walliae no. 3313. 2) BM STC Ger. C16th. p.478

L2914

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CAMDEN, William.

IN DE THOU’S FINEST BINDING

Britannia.

London, [printed at Eliot’s court press] impensis Georg. Bishop, 1600.

£15,750

4to, pp. [16], 831, [27], 30, [2], [2] pls. Predominantly Roman letter, little Gothic, Italic, Greek and Old Saxon; engraved elaborate frontispiece by W. Rogers, with central map of British Isles and Neptune and Ceres at sides, title with large woodcut arms of Queen Elizabeth as dedicatee, half-title ‘Hiberniae’ with large printer’s device, two folding engraved maps of England under Roman Empire and Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, several engraved illustrations in text, a few full- or double-page, floriated or historiated initials, typographical or grotesque head- and tail-pieces; a few central leaves lightly age browned, very occasional light marginal foxing, clean tear to outer lower corner of p.563. A fine copy in contemporary French red morocco, triple-fillet border, gilt-stamped armorial supralibros of Jacques-Auguste de Thou and his wife on covers, his monogram and title gilt on spine compartments, a. e. g.; minor repair to head and foot of spine and upper joint; on front pastedown, autograph and bibliographical note of Jean-Jacques de Bure (1765–1853), dated 10 October 1833, and bookplate of O. Vernon Watney; Pirie’s bookplate on front endpaper.

Exquisitely bound copy of the first comprehensive chorographical investigation of the British Isles, in the first edition with maps. Sir William Camden (1551-1623) was the most prominent antiquarian scholar of Elizabethan England. Educated at Oxford, Camden approached antiquarianism upon the encouragement of Philp Sidney and started a broad-ranging survey of the country which went on for nine years, eventually leading to the compilation of Britannia. The success of the work launched his career: Camden become headmaster of Westminster School, Officer of Arms and finally the official historiographer of Queen Elizabeth. Britannia is a county-by-county description of Great Britain and Ireland in relation to landscape, geography, antiquarianism and history. In addition the two folded maps at the beginning, the illustrations include antiquities, a series of Roman and ancient British coins as well as a view of Stonehenge (p. 219) and a map of Ireland. The final 30 pages addressing the reader contain Camden’s reply to Ralph Brooke (1553–1625), another Officer of Arms who had attacked the work in his A discoverie of certaine errours published in print in the much commended Britannia.

This beautiful copy comes from the library of a great collector, the French historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou (1553-1617). As typical of the many books forming his legendary collection, his arms are gilt on covers and his monogram is repeated over the spine. This binding was certainly made one or two years after the publication of the work, as de Thou’s arms and monogram are accompanied by those of his first wife, Marie Barbançon, died 1601 (Guigard, II, p. 452). In 1602, de Thou remarried and refashioned his binding style accordingly; bindings of this kind are far more common than those in the two earlier styles. In 1833, the book was collated by Jean-Jacques de Bure (1765–1853), scion of what was perhaps the most influential and learned dynasty of booksellers in France between the eighteenth and the early nineteenth-century. Jean-Jacques and his brother, Marie-Jacques, successfully took over their father’s business and sold some of the most significant collections of their times, including that of Mac-Carthy Reagh (1815).They offered for sale part of their own vast collection between 1835 and 1838, the rest being purchased by the Bibliothèque imperiale after Jean-Jacques’s death.

De Thou had only his most favourite volumes bound in this splendid red morocco and they constitute a small and highly prized part of his great collection.

ESTC S107386; CELM CmW 13.183 (record of this copy); Brunet, I, 1511 (mentioning this copy); Graesse, II, 24.

K68

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OLEARIUS, Adam

Relation du Voyage de Moscovie, Tartarie, et de Perse, .. depuis l’an 1633, jusques en l’an 1639.

A Paris, chez Pierre Aubouin, 1656.

£2,250

FIRST EDITION thus. 4to. pp. [xxxviii] 543-[i]. (-)1, ẽ4, ĩ4, õ4, ũ4, *2, A-3Y4. Roman letter, some Italic. Woodcut initials, head and tail-pieces, typographical headpieces and ornaments, contemporary manuscript ex dono on title “don. d. Carolus bonodin Can. arch. bibliothecca eclesia noniam 1663”, small C19th library stamp in blank margin below, early shelf mark on pastedown. Light age yellowing, very minor water-stain in blank upper margin in places, the rare marginal spot or mark. A very good copy, clean and well margined, in contemporary vellum over thin boards.

A very good copy of the first French translation of this important travel account to Moscow and Persia by Adam Olearius, German scholar, and secretary to an embassy sent by the small German state of Holstein to explore an overland trade route with Persia. The first embassy was dispatched to Russia in 1633-34 to secure the tsar’s permission to travel, and ship through his realm. The second was sent in 1635 to complete the deal with the shah of Persia. Although the commercial mission failed, the embassy was successful in the remarkable information gathered by Olearius. The embassy started from Gottorp in 1633 and travelled, by Hamburg, to Moscow where they concluded an advantageous treaty with Tsar Michael, and returned forthwith to Gottorp to procure the ratification of this arrangement from the duke, before proceeding to Persia. Their voyage down the Volga and over the Caspian Sea was slow and hindered by accidents, but they reached the Persian court at Isfahan and were received by the Safavid king, Shah Safi.

“The first edition of Olearius’ account of his travels was published in 1647 in Schleswig. An extended and restructured edition appeared in 1656: .. The [work] is divided into six “books” of which the fourth treats the mission’s route up to Isfahan, with detailed descriptions of Ardabil, Qazvin, Qom, Kāšān, and their stay at the Safavid court. Book five is an encyclopedic description of Persia, covering aspects such as geography, fauna and flora, political institutions, manners, customs and clothing, Safavid history, education, language and script, trade, and religion. The return journey from Isfahan is the subject of book six. Amongst the numerous ethnographic observations, mention should be made of Olearius’ depiction of the ʿAsura’ ceremonies and other Shiite rituals, including the recitation of a “Machtelnamae” and the celebration of ʿAli’s designation as the Prophet’s successor (“Chummekater;” p. 435ff., 456ff.). Of interest for the history of printing is the regular insertion of Persian and Turkish quotations in the original script, serving as a model for the later account by Engelbert Kaempfer. .. “Olearius provided the first comprehensive description of Persia since antiquity, but his achievements appear less significant when compared with the far broader range and experience of later travellers who wrote after him in the course of the 17 century” (Lohmeier, p. 59). Still, all later travelogues are heavily indebted to him and his work can be studied as a starting point for the genre. His outstanding contribution to the cartography of Persia is his Nova Delineatio Persiae et Confiniorvm veteri longe accurator edita Anno 1655, the first realistic map of Iran that, in particular, corrects the location and form of the Caspian Sea. ..He also acted as editor of books composed by other members of the Holstein-mission or travellers associated with the Duchy of Gottorp..” Encyclopedia Iranica.

This enlarged edition was also translated into Dutch, Italian and English. A very good copy of the first edition in French.

BM STC Fr. C17th. Brunet IV 178. Graesse V 18. Blackmer.

L2689

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KOREAN MAP, Capital Province

JEONG CHEOK MAP OF KOREA’S CAPITAL PROVINCE

Map of the capital province, Joseon Korea.

Korea, first half of 18th century.

£2,750

Hand-drawn map, first half of the 18th century, depicting the capital (gyeonggi 京畿) province of Joseon Korea. It is fourth of the eight provinces of Joseon Korea (Joseon paldo 朝鮮八道, which were reorganised into the 13 modern provinces in 1896.) It states the administrative classification of each district or outpost, as well as how many days of overland travel are required to reach it from the capital. It was intended to aid scholar-officials holding government civil service positions in planning their journeys. This map was produced by an unknown Joseon Korean cartographer in the celebrated and highly distinctive “Jeong Cheok” style, and it is a superb example of this quintessential pre-19th century cartographical tradition.

Mounted within thin oriental wood, framed and glazed, on bamboo paper, measuring 45cm x 39.3cm, including fabric border of 6.1-6.7cm. The map itself is 32.2cm x 27.1cm. Text border on all sides, however all but the outer border have been cropped. The border that remains is 0.9-1.2cm deep, with a slither remaining along the top. The paper has occasional faint darker areas, however none diminish the legibility or artistry. The map was folded into twelve parts, leaving two horizontal and three vertical creases, with very slight wear, including a small hole in the lower centre of the map at the intersection of two creases. Small tear in the far lower left, however the area affected is only ocean. There is also a small black smudge in the ocean just off the tip of the north-western peninsula.

The map has been produced in the style of Jeong Cheok (정척/鄭陟, 1390– 1475), a successful 15th century cartographer, himself a scholar-retainer who served several Joseon kings. The modern concepts of latitude and longitude were not understood in Korea until the early 19th century, and the flatness and distortion of the land in Jeong Cheok-style representations reflect this. Nonetheless, the shape, layout, and topographical properties of the provinces are depicted with impressive accuracy, enabling an overland traveller to plan the most direct route avoiding natural barriers. “Jeong Cheok” maps bear a number of distinct stylistic characteristics. First, further information is added in a text border surrounding the map. Second, natural topographical features are highly simplified; mountains are indicated symbolically as a jagged row of uniform peaks, and coasts and waterways are low-detail. Third, districts – always with two-syllable names – and military bases are represented by uniformly sized bubbles. In this map, these bubbles are pink; the district name is written down the centre of the bubble; to the right is the number of days of overland travel required to reach it from the capital, and to the left is its administrative classification. The capital city (gyeong ) bubble is circled twice. The Joseon administrative classification system includes, from largest to smallest, the bu (provincial capital city), mok (mid-level city), gun or su (county or prefecture), and finally lyeong or gam (small town).

The lines and text of the map are drawn in black ink. Land is uncoloured, while water is depicted in a light blue wash. Strikingly, water is coloured darker blue where it meets land. Mountains are coloured brown and labelled. Islands, also named, are depicted as white ovals in the ocean. Land-based outposts (yeogdo 驛道) and offshore ocean settlements are marked in white boxes. There is a title box with “Capital – [province] four” (gyeonggi sa 京畿四) in the top right corner. Within the text border running along the top, left, and right sides, there are remarks about what lies beyond the map in these directions.

L1755

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MING CHINESE MAP

MING CHINA’S LAND, ISLANDS, AND RIVERS

L1756 Ming China

Overview of the Realm (Tianxia tu lüe 天下圖略).

China, between 1625-1650.

£12,500

Fascinating hand-drawn map depicting Ming明 dynasty (1368 – 1644) China and surrounding lands produced by an unknown Chinese cartographer between 1625 and 1650. The map aids long distance journeys by water. It makes prominent the inland waterway networks and oceans of Ming China and beyond. It also depicts those locations – cities, countries, and islands – that can be accessed by navigating expanses of water, including distant locations. Other unusual features include the notation of corresponding constellations for each province and the names of local tribes. Stylistically, the map is clear and minimal, using a simple palette of red, brown, and blue wash. Overall, with its culturally rich and eclectic content and its portable size, this map would have been a valued personal possession of an enthusiastic and well-travelled scholar, learned merchant, or even Jesuit. It is highly likely that the map was unique to its original owner.

Mounted within thin oriental dark wood, framed and glazed, measuring 39cm x 30.5cm, on bamboo paper. The paper is slightly yellowed and there are occasional darker marks, however none of this diminishes the legibility or artistry. Previously folded into six parts, the creases are dark and worn, so writing and imagery is occasionally partially obscured. Small tear on character “略” of the title. The map is bordered with a thin black line, set within a further black-lined border, 3.5cm deep at foot, 1-1.3cm at left, 0.3-0.6cm at right, and 5.3-5.5cm deep at head. The map measures 28.5cm (head) x 28.7cm (foot) x 29.7cm (left) x 29.4cm (right); it does not form a perfect square. In the top right hand corner is a box bearing the title “天下圖略” (and the final character is a variant.) Text and lines are in black ink. Land is not coloured, water is indicated with a pale blue wash, and mountains are dark brown. Province boundaries not obvious from natural topological barriers are lined red. Ringed in red are cities of political, cultural, and historical significance. Names of the provinces are ringed in black, and of towns and cities in black boxes.

Within the map, the fourteen administrative provinces of Ming China are disproportionately expanded relative to surrounding areas. They account for approximately 80% of the surface. The layout of the inland waterway network is the most prominent feature. Minor rivers are rendered as large as major ones, and named. Lakes and even the sources of some rivers are named. Also privileged are the relative positions of major waterside settlements. The map depicts them as similarly sized and spaced, illustrating at a glance the order in which one would arrive if travelling by boat. This depiction of the waterway network and its cities is distorted to fill the area of Ming China, and water-poor areas in the far west and north are dramatically shrunk or dispensed with entirely. Compensating for the distortion, the true distance between major Ming Chinese cities is stated in miles (li ) at several points.

Cities and districts of greatest political, cultural, and historical significance are ringed in red: the northern and southern capitals of Beijing 北京 and Nanjing 南京, the cultural centre and ancient capital of Luoyang 洛陽, and Xianyang 咸陽. Xianyang was important to the Western Zhou (1046 – 771 BC, remembered as a halcyon period of pre-imperial China) and as well as the capital of the first dynasty, the Qin (221 – 206 BC), and these dynasties are noted on the map. Also drawn and named are several mountain ranges, which would serve as markers for navigation by water. Interestingly, the name markers of many of the fourteen provinces and Joseon Korea (Chaoxian 朝鮮) are accompanied by the name of corresponding constellations from among the twenty-eight lunar lodges (ershiba su 二十八宿). The Great Wall (chang cheng 長城) is marked, but its shape is distorted. For example, Ming extensions of the Wall into the east, which reach to the modern border of North Korea, are depicted as a stub. Similarly, the western extremities of the Wall extending through modern Gansu and Xinjiang are shrunk and simplified.

Water features are also the focus in the depiction of territories beyond the border. Interestingly, foreign water features are rendered as large and as clearly as those within Ming China, even if unconnected. These include Lake Baikal (Hanhai 瀚海) and, in the southwest, what appears to be the Indus river. Mountains that are near to or form the source include the Khentii mountains (Langjushan 狼居山) and of greatest cultural importance, the Kunlun 崑崙 mountains in the west. One of the most intriguing features is the depiction of the mythical underground river linking the Yellow River back to its imagined source in the Kunluns, drawn in faint yellow and running below the Great Wall. Many non-Han tribes, settlements, and ethnic groups are indicated in their proper locales.

In addition to these natural features, also depicted are outlying foreign regions and nations, bordering China or accessible by water. These are rendered comparatively small in contrast to the provinces of Ming China itself. These include modern Tibet and Xinjiang (Xifan 西蕃), Joseon Korea, Japan (Ribenguo 日本国), what is now Vietnam (indicated both as Annan 安南 and Jiaozhi 交趾), Thailand (“Siam”, Xianluoguo 暹羅国), the Chenla kingdom (Zhenlaguo 真臘国), and modern-day Hainan (Qiongzhou 瓊州). (It is noteworthy that the character used for “country”, guo , is a pre-modern simplified form.) Also included is the Xiaoliuqiu 小琉球 island, just off the southern coast of Taiwan. However, Taiwan is not depicted, even though it was well-known to and settled by the Ming Chinese. This is also the case in other maps of the period.

Far off islands in the southern and eastern seas or circled regions in the west and north are marked in minimal detail. The Liuqiu kingdom (Liuqiuguo 琉球国), for example, refers to unspecified islands in the East China Sea, though the name is currently used for the Ryukyu Islands. The “Kingdom of pierced stomachs” (Chuanweiguo 穿胃国), “Kingdom of large men” (Darenguo 大人国), and “Kingdom of little men” (Xiaorenguo 小人国) belong to this category. Most interesting among these, perhaps, is the country is the far southeast, Nürenguo 女人国, “Kingdom of women”. Some scholars believe this refers to the uncharted but rumoured areas of Northern Australia, which many Ming Chinese presumed to operate a matriarchal society. Interestingly, in the territories to the west there are circled spaces that have been left blank, anticipating unknown lands there whose names might be added.

L1756

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KOREAN MAP, Jeolla Province

JEONG CHEOK MAP OF KOREAN PROVINCEL1755 Korean Map 1

Map of Jeolla province, Joseon Korea.

Korea, first half of 18th century.

£2,250

Hand-drawn map, first half of the 18th century, depicting Jeolla 全羅, sixth of the eight provinces of Joseon Korea (Joseon paldo 朝鮮八道, which were reorganised into the 13 modern provinces in 1896.) It states the administrative classification of each district or outpost, as well as how many days of overland travel are required to reach it from the capital. It was intended to aid scholar-officials holding government civil service positions in planning their journeys. This map was produced by an unknown Joseon Korean cartographer in the celebrated and highly distinctive “Jeong Cheok” style, and is a superb example of this quintessential pre-19th century cartographical tradition.

Mounted within thin oriental wood, framed and glazed, the map, on bamboo paper, is set within a fabric border 5.9cm deep, measuring 45cm x 39.3cm. The map itself is 33cm x 27.3cm. Text border on all sides, however the lower border has been cropped. The borders that remain are 1.4cm deep. The paper has occasional faint darker areas, however none diminish the legibility or artistry. The map was folded into twelve parts, leaving two horizontal and three vertical creases, with very slight wear. Small hole in the lower centre of the map at the intersection of two creases; tear at lower edge (6.5cm x 3cm at its worst) affecting the depiction of the southernmost peninsula.

The map has been produced in the style of Jeong Cheok (정척/鄭陟, 1390 – 1475), a successful 15th century cartographer, himself a scholar-retainer who served several Joseon kings. The modern concepts of latitude and longitude were not understood in Korea until the early 19th century, and the flatness and distortion of the land in Jeong Cheok-style representations reflect this. Nonetheless, the shape, layout, and topographical properties of the provinces are depicted with impressive accuracy, enabling an overland traveller to plan the most direct route avoiding natural barriers.

“Jeong Cheok” maps bear a number of distinct stylistic characteristics. First, further information is added in a text border surrounding the map. Second, natural topographical features are highly simplified; mountains are indicated symbolically as a jagged row of uniform peaks, and coasts and waterways are low-detail. Third, districts (always with two-syllable names) and military bases are represented by uniformly sized bubbles. In this map, these bubbles are pink; the district name is written down the centre of the bubble; to the right is the number of days of overland travel required to reach it from the capital, and to the left is its administrative classification. The Joseon administrative classification system includes, from largest to smallest, the bu (provincial capital city), mok (mid-level city), gun or su (county or prefecture), and finally lyeong or gam (small town).

The lines and text of the map are drawn in black ink. Land is uncoloured, while water is depicted in a light blue wash. Strikingly, water is coloured darker blue where it meets land. Mountains are coloured brown and labelled. Islands, also named, are depicted as white ovals in the ocean. There are one military base (byeongyeong 兵營) and two naval bases (suyeong 水營), left and right, in pink bubbles. Land-based outposts (yeogdo 驛道) and offshore ocean settlements are marked in white boxes. There is a title box with “Jeolla province – six” (Jeolla do lyuk 全羅道六) in the top right corner. Within the text border running along the top, left, and right sides, there are remarks about what lies beyond the map in these directions.

L1754

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