HOTMAN, François. [with] MYNSINGER von FRUNDECK, Joachim.


HOTMAN, François. Vetus-renovatus commentarius in quatuor libros Institutionvm iuris civilis.

Lyon, Apud Antonium Candidum, [1588]. [with]

MYNSINGER von FRUNDECK, Joachim. Apotelesma, hoc est corpus perfectum scholiorum.

Helmstedt, ex officina Iacobi Lucii, 1588.


Large folio. 2 works in one, pp. (xii) 525 (xix), (xl) 704 (ccxxiv). Roman letter, some Italic, occasional Greek. T-ps in red and black with printer’s woodcut devices; author’s woodcut portrait to verso of second, his large woodcut arms to β8, and large woodcut printer’s device to last; woodcut initials and ornaments. Minimal toning, I: very light water stain to upper blank margin of early gatherings, small tear from upper outer blank corner of i1, II: marginal ink splash to verso of H4 just touching side note, the odd spot, small tear to three upper edges, light water stain to upper outer corner towards end. Very good copies in contemporary Saxon pigskin, triple blind ruled to a panel design, outer border with blind roll of tendrils and small heads within roundels, second with blind roll of interlacing palmettes, third with blind-stamped full female figures of Faith, Hope, Charity, Prudence and Temperance (some signed FH), centre panel bordered by blind rolls of palmettes and tendrils, elaborate blind-stamped armorial centrepieces (signed GK) of Christian I, Elector of Saxony (upper) and Johann Georg, Elector of Brandenburg (verso), diagonally striped, raised bands, corners a bit bumped and worn, covers a little soiled. Ms. casemarks to front pastedown, C18 ‘1 Julii 1717’ to first t-p.

In a solid, handsome pigskin binding. The centrepieces are signed G.K. (Georg d. Ä. Kammerberger, EBDB w000435 and Haebler I 221-225). ‘The Kammerbergers were a family of bookbinders, whose workshops in Wittenberg were active during a large part of the C16 and throughout the C17 century. The company probably flourished under Georg Kammerberger the Younger in the 1590s, who was elected Master of the Guild in 1592’ (Haebler). This binding is stamped with the finely cut arms of Christian I, Elector of Saxony, and those of Johann Georg, Elector of Brandenburg. Christian I married Sophie of Brandenburg, Johann Georg’s daughter, in 1586; after her husband’s death in 1591, she became Regent (Sophia Electrix) during the minority of their son, until 1600. Given that, during the Regency, her personal arms were used in escutcheons and medals, this binding was probably produced for her library in the preceding years, with the Saxon and Brandenburg arms identifying her status as wife and daughter.

Two important commentaries to Justinian’s ‘Institutiones’—a cornerstone of the Western legal system. Justinian I (482-565) ruled for forty years over the Byzantine empire and succeeded in temporarily rekindling the former splendour of Rome by reclaiming Italy, Dalmatia and Spain from the Ostrogoths and Visigoths. ‘Institutiones’ is part of his ‘Corpus iuris civilis’, the first codification of Roman law. Based on the ‘Institutiones’ of Gaius, and other authorities, including Ulpian, it is a compendium of the basic institutions of Roman law devised by Theophilus and Dorotheus, two Byzantine law professors, under the supervision of Tribonian. François Hotman (1524-90) was a French Protestant lawyer associated with the anti-absolutist faction. In his revolutionary ‘Anti-Tribonian’, he advocated the substitution, in France, of Roman law based on Justinian, a change the king could have enforced with a legislative act. With a philological approach, he ‘favoured an alliance between law and history in order to distinguish between “old law” and “new law”, that is, between obsolete law and authoritative law’, being concerned with ‘salvaging what still had practical value’ among Roman laws (Kelley, ‘François Hotman’, 189). His ‘Commentarius’, also featuring a life of Justinian, sought to highlight Roman laws still relevant to the present, distinguishing originals and interpolations by later jurists, including the berated Tribonian. Joachim Mynsinger von Frundeck (1514-88) was a German jurist and writer, a judge at the Imperial Chamber of Justice in Speyer and later Vice-Chancellor of Helmstedt University. He was the first to publish documents of the so-called ‘cameralistic jurisprudence’, the decisions of the Imperial Chamber based on confidential consultation. Here in a scarce German edition, ‘Apotelesma’ was organised ‘in the form of “glossae” or annotations to single passages in the text, accompanied by brief comments. (Padoa-Schioppa, ‘History’, 269). Subjects include the laws relating to agriculture, wills, evidence, landed property and inheritance.

I: Baudrier XII, 484. Not in BM STC Fr. or Brunet.

II: No copies recorded in the US.

BM STC Ger., p.746 (1563 ed.). Not in Graesse. A. Padoa-Schioppa, A History of Law in Europe (Cambridge, 2017); D.R. Kelley, François Hotman (Princeton, 1973).


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[Cambio de Víñas en Morales.]

Manuscript on paper, Zamora (Spain), 1455.


4to. 8 unnumbered ll., second blank. First fol. in C17 cursive, 21 lines per full page, fols 3-7 in C15 escritura cortesana, c.28 lines per full page, pen flourishings in brown at margins and end, with notarial signatures. First three ll. slightly foxed, small tear at outer edge along nearly invisible centre fold, within a small marginal water stain, stitched. C17 ‘1455’, ‘Hueco y Cambeo mai Pos[nes]’ and ‘Hueco de unas viñas’, and C15 docket to verso of last blank.

Remarkably well-preserved, ephemeral deed granting the use of a vineyard in Morales, near Zamora. This area, with the province of Salamanca, in north-western Spain, was part of the Tierra del Vino—later a controlled designation of origin. The document includes a ‘carta de troque, cambio y permutación’ (for exchange and permutation) and a ‘carta de juramento’ (oath), both in the name of Bachiller Alvar Rodrigues of Sant Ysidro, son of Dr Juan Rodrigues of Sant Ysidro, resident in Zamora—a member of the Council of King Ferdinand and magistrate at the Real Chancillería in Valladolid (Dominguez, ‘Nobleza’, 485). A ‘carta de troque’ stated the reciprocal transfer of items of the same kind between two parties—here between Rodrigues, and Alfonso Estevan and his wife Cathalina Fernandes of nearby Morales—in this case, also a ‘permutación’, without the need for money exchange (‘Discursos juridicos’, 45-8). Rodrigues gave a vineyard he owned within the boundaries of Morales and Almantaya, between the vineyards of Juan de Morales and Juan Estevan, in exchange for two, the borders of which were the vineyards of the Bachiller himself, that formerly of Diego de Zamora, and another. The rest explains, for both sides, the conditions of the exchange, including specified fines for non-compliance equalling the value of the vineyards, the degree of ownership and their responsibility concerning the management of the vineyard, e.g., tax payment to the king, prince and lords. The ‘carta de juramento’ reinforced the first document with an official oath.

E. Fernández Prieto Dominguez, Nobleza de Zamora (1953); J.M. Dominguez Vicente, Discursos juridicos (Madrid, 1731).


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PIGHIUS, Stephanus Vinandus.


Annales magistratuum et provinciar. S.P.Q.R. ab urbe condita.

Antwerp, ex Officina Plantiniana, 1599.


FIRST EDITION. Folio. pp. (xxiv) 469 [i.e., 467] (iii). Roman letter, with Italic. Engraved architectural t-p with allegorical figures of Fame, Justice, Prudence and the Tiber, 8 ¼-page engravings of classical deities, coins or scenes from Roman history, large woodcut printer’s device to verso of last, decorated initials and ornaments. Intermittent slight browning, light water stain to upper edge, ink burn to early ownership inscription on t-p, traces of chewing to upper and lower edge of first two gatherings. A very good, tall, well-margined copy in contemporary Flemish calf, lacking ties, stubs from rubricated C14 astrological ms. on vellum used as spine lining, single gilt and double blind ruled, centre panel bordered with roll of gilt ropework, large gilt fleurons to outer corners, large gilt corner- and centrepieces with interlacing ribbons and tendrils, raised bands, large gilt fleurons to compartments, a.e.g., expert repair to corners, head and foot of spine, and upper joint, small repairs to surface of corners. C17 ms. ‘Liber iste ex (?) et musaeo dep[re]ndet P. Mareschal Dñi de Boulans [Francisci Bouchard medicinae et (?)] doctoris Bisontini [Besançon] emptus decem libris 15 iunii 1634 de vastatione castelli Vildestein [Villedestin]’ and C18 ms. author biography to verso of fly, C17 inscriptions ‘Ex Lib. F. Bouchard med. doctoris & dono N. Viduae N. Domini [Christmas] D.’ and ‘A Monsieur P. Mareschal Baronis de Bouclan’ to lower blank t-p margin, modern label to rear fep.

In 1634, this copy was in the library of Pierre Mareschal, Baron de Bouclans, an influential personality in the government of Besançon, in France-Comté. He was an esteemed collector of Gallo-Roman antiquities, including epigraphic specimens, and books. The note says that, on 15 Jun 1634, he purchased from a physician in Besançon ten books which came from the ransacking of the Castle of Villedestin (Waldenstein), in Lower Alsace, owned by the Abbey of Murbach. The observation, arguably in Mareschal’s hand, that this work was ‘rarissimus’ (both scarce and excellent) reveals an early bibliophile’s interest in ‘rarity’, and the great appreciation in which the work was held by contemporary antiquaries. François Bouchard (fl. second half of the C17) was professor of medicine at Besançon, and the author of an account on the autopsy of ‘a monstrous child exposed in a public street at Leiden’ in 1672.

The splendid binding was most likely produced in the same workshop as BL C27k9, printed in Antwerp in 1601, given the identical corner- and centrepieces.

A splendidly bound copy of the first edition of this monumental survey of the chronology of the magistrates and officers of ancient Rome and its imperial provinces. ‘He who writes on Roman history cannot dispense with the work of Pighius’ (Niebuhr, ‘Lectures’, 1849). Stephanus Vinandus Pighius (Étienne Vinand, 1520-1604) was an antiquary from the Duchy of Clèves, patronised by Cardinal Farnese during an Italian stay, and later librarian of Cardinal Grenvelle and tutor of the Duke of Clèves’s son. He wrote ‘Annales’ in the later years of his life, but only published the first of three volumes; the other two were edited posthumously by the humanist Andreas Schott, following Pighius’s ms. notes. Based on a huge variety of fresh research into printed and ms. sources, ‘Annales’ lists all known Consuls, Censors, Dictators, Masters of the Horse, Praetors, Aediles, Tribunes and Quaestors, for every year from the foundation of the Republic. Pighius occasionally used fictious but verisimilar names to fill numerous gaps. His models were the histories of Rome published by C. Sigonius (1556) and O. Pavinius (1557), partly based, in turn, on the annals carved on the Capitoline Marbles (or Consular Fasti). This was a monument built under Augustus to celebrate the consular office, and which detailed, in stone, the Consuls in office each year since 509BC. A masterpiece of early modern historiography and antiquarianism, ‘Annales’ remained influential for centuries, being widely used by Gerard Vossius and reprinted by Johann Graevius. 

The C14 rubricated vellum ms. used as spine lining contains parts (e.g., ‘De aptatione et corruptione’) of Albumasar’s ‘Liber introductorii maioris ad scientiam judiciorum astrorum’, in John of Seville’s Latin translation.

UNC, Huntington and Lehigh copies recorded in the US.

Adams, P1197; Pettigree & Walsby, Netherlandish Books, 25570. Not in Brunet. G.C. Sampson, ‘The Rediscovery of a Sixteenth Century Work on Roman Magistrates: the Pighius Fasti’.


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BACCI, Andrea.


De naturali vinorum historia, de vinis Italiae et de Conuiuiis Antiquorum.

Rome, ex officina Nicholai Mutij, 1596.


FIRST EDITION. Folio. pp. (xxviii) 370 (ii). Roman letter, occasional Italic. Engraved architectural t-p with female allegorical figures and arms of the Colonna above, emblems of the Arts and Sciences, and author’s portrait. Full-page engraving of ‘Thermopolium Romanum’ to Aa 1 , decorated initials and ornaments. Small ink burn to crossed-out inscription on t-p, light water stain at head of t-p and upper margin of few gatherings, spotted browning (poorly dried) in places, small hole to outer blank margin of G 3 , Y 3 strengthened at gutter. A good copy in early C19 vellum, marbled endpapers, raised bands, spine gilt, gilt-lettered morocco labels, a.e.r. Bookplate of Pietro and Michele Del Vecchio to front pastedown, C19 bibliographical inscription to verso of ffep, contemporary ‘Ex Musaeo et libris Nicolai Aloysij Rigatij Med. i Ariminen sis ’ to t-p.

A good, well-margined copy of the first edition of this fascinating history of wine—‘of great rarity; […] one of the most important treatises published on the wines of France, Spain and all European countries’ (Vicaire 60-1). The Italian Andrea Bacci (1524-1600) was physician to Pope Sixtus V, professor of botany at Rome, and author of works on natural science (including a study of elks) and medicine (on medicaments, poisons and antidotes). ‘De naturali vinorum historia’ opens with a dedication to Cardinal Ascanio Colonna and Clement VIII’s printing privilege granted to Bacci. The first section provides a cultural and medical history of wine, spanning ancient drinking habits, religious uses, Galen’s and Dioscorides’s opinions, preservation, vinegar and aquavite. The second discusses the natural properties of wine according to age, smell, flavour, as well as wine-making and cultivation; it includes descriptions of specific wines (e.g., Formianum, Tiburtinum, sweet, from vitis Labrusca). The third analyses the medical uses of wine to treat fever, conditions of the stomach, chest, kidneys and bladder, the causes of drunkenness, and its effects on melancholic people. The fourth begins with a history of ancient banquets (convivia), their organisation, implements and food served, followed by a section focusing on the kinds of wine served, ways of toasting and serving, and at what temperature. Here Bacci contributed to debates on the physiological effects of cold beverages, which had become fashionable in the C16. He described the use of the Roman ‘thermopolium’, handsomely illustrated—a public place where hot and cold beverages, sweet as well as alcoholic, could be purchased. The work concludes with references to wine in ancient poetry, including Virgil and Homer. The C17 owner of this copy was Nicolai Aloysius Rigatius (Nicola Luigi Rigato or Rigati), physician in Rimini. He was member of the local Accademia degli Adagiati, established in 1627, and participated in their poetic florilegium ‘Virtutis trophaea’ (1659). The phrase ‘ex musaeo et libris’ suggests he also collected artefacts or natural specimens.

Only Yale copy recorded in the US.
EDIT16 CNCE 3836; Brunet I, 599: ‘ouvrage rare et recherché’; Simon, Bib. Bacchica, 68: ‘Traité agréablement écrit et bien présenté’; Vicaire 60-1; Wellcome 607. Not in Oberlé or Durling.


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[MORELLI, João Baptista; LEITAO, Fulgençio].


Reduccion y restituycion del reyno de Portugal a la serenissima casa de Bragança en la real persona de Ivan IV.

Turin [i.e., Paris?], por Iuannetin Pennoto, 1648.


FIRST EDITION. Small 4to. pp. (viii) 415 (i), lacking initial blank. Decorated initial. T-p a little dusty, lower blank margin replaced partially obscuring one letter of imprint, ffep slightly adhering at gutter, very light browning, the odd mark or spot, small worm trail to outer blank margin of O-2B 4 (repaired from X 4 ), very light water stain to lower blank margin of last few ll. A good copy in modern sheep, raised bands, spine gilt, gilt morocco label, a.e.r. C17 bibliographical inscriptions ‘alias Fr. Fulgencio Leitao, da ordem des to Ag Calc o ’ and ‘alias Fr Fulgencio Leitão da Ordem Agostino Calçado’.

A good copy of the scarce first edition of this important apology of the Portuguese monarchs, dedicated to João IV. Fulgençio Leitão (or Leitam, fl. early C17) was an Augustinian Hermit in Lisbon, professor of theology and ‘in utroque iure’; he later moved to Rome, under the name of Fr. João Antonio Ruvarolla. All his works were published under fictitious imprints and authorship; ironically, he incurred the wrath of Cardinal J.B. Pallota, protector of the Augustinian Hermits, for a work he did not write. The Italian imprint ‘Turin’ is fictitious; ‘Reduccion’ was published probably in Paris, during his subsequent exile. It celebrated the ‘return’ to Portugal of the House of Braganza, after 60 years of Iberian Union, begun in 1580 when Philip II of Spain acceded as Philip I of Portugal following the Portuguese Succession War. The rebellion against his descendant Philip III of Portugal (IV of Spain) was led by Duke João II, later crowned King João IV, in 1640. In the preface, Leitão clarifies that the work was intended not so much for a Portuguese, but for a foreign audience. Although some had advised him to write in Italian, as this might interest an Italian rather than a Spanish audience, he chose Spanish so that his Spanish critics would not have the pretext of linguistic misunderstanding. Imbued with Leitão’s theological and legal knowledge, the first of the four parts discusses the historical ties between the Dukes of Braganza and Portugal, and their greater legal right to the throne, against the criticism of Castilian authors, who called João I’s reign a ‘tyranny’ and his descendant’s ancient right a ‘fiction’. The second part describes this ‘restitution’ as divinely planned, the third suggests this occasion should be solemnised and regularly celebrated, and the fourth—a short ‘mirror for princes’—outlines the new monarch’s duties towards God, his vassals and people, with numerous references to the history of the House of Braganza.

The New World is listed among the places to which the Portuguese brought the Catholic faith: ‘In America, the broad Country of Brazil, on the opposite coast as compared to the Western Indies of Peru, and the Marañon […] lifting in all those provinces the flag of our Redemption, reducing little by little part of those barbarous People to the knowledge, and worship, of the true God, and the obedience to the Holy Mother Roman Catholic Church’ (p.297). Further references to trade and fighting against the Dutch in the New World.

Four copies recorded in the US.
Palau 181585; Díaz, Impresos del siglo XVII, 2689; Bib. Lusitana Historica, p.307; Moetjens, Bib. anonymiana 2335; Bib. Hist. de Portugal 372. Not in Emil, Die falschen und fingirten Druckorte. Not in Alden.


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PAULINUS, Laurentius.


Historiae Arctoae libri tres.

Strengnes, Typis & impensis authoris; excudebat Johannes L. Barkenius, [1636].


FIRST EDITION. Small 4to. pp. (xx) 415 (xvii) 168 (xvi) (i 4 cancelled as usual). Roman letter, with Italic. T-p within woodcut architectural frame. T-p dusty and remargined to verso, not touching text, next torn and repaired without loss, a few old marginal repairs at beginning and end, slight yellowing, occasional minor marginal spotting, a few ll. a little dusty. A good
copy in C18 half vellum over marbled boards, a bit worn. C17 inscription Laur. Qvist [Laurentius/Lars Qvist] and couple of early casemarks to front pastedown, Swedish binder’s inscription ‘Carl Friedrich Borg bok bindaren’ 1735 to inner spine lining.

A good copy of the first edition of ‘the first extended, comprehensive history of Sweden’ (‘Nordisk’, 906) and ‘the most ambitious piece of [Swedish] historiography’ of the C17 (Kalevich, ‘Compilation’, 6). Laurentius Paulinus Gothus (1565-1646) was Archbishop of Strengnes, Sweden. In 1622, he promoted the establishment of the first printing press of the town, with the financial assistance of King Gustavus Adolphus. The present is one of the most famous outputs of this provincial press (Cotton, ‘Gazetteer’, 272). ‘Historia’ provides an account spanning the Creation, as most C16 national histories, to the death of Gustavus Adolphus in 1632; it also includes a geographical survey of Sweden and a summary of the most important historical events. Whilst Paulinus did not engage in fresh archival research, he produced a major compilation of all available sources, especially Olaus Magnus. The account of early history includes astronomical observations and criticism of astrological forecasts, as well as the first migrations to Sweden after the Flood. It is followed by a description of Swedish territories, including Lapland, and of Finland, Norway, Livonia, Estonia, Lithuania, Denmark and even Muscovy; it then focuses on Sweden, discussing its politics (to Gustavus Adolphus), religion (especially the extirpation of paganism), customs and laws. The second section follows the chronology of Swedish kings from before the Flood to 1492. The catalogue of the ‘Bibliotheca Heberiana’ (1835, n.3320) states that copy was ‘very scarce, with the suppressed leaves’, pointing the reader to ‘Lord Strangford’s note’ on the subject. Percy Smythe, 6th Viscount Strangford (1780-1820) was ambassador to Sweden in 1817-20. We have not been able to identify this note or discover anything about suppression; it may concern i 4 which is cancelled.

Minnesota, Illinois and Yale copies recorded in the US.
Graesse V, 172; Brunet IV, 444 (footnote); Estreicher, Bib. Polska, 217; Bib. Livoniae historica, 2020. H. Cotton, A Typographical Gazetteer (Oxford, 1831); Nordisk Familjebok (Stockholm, 1888); A. Vetushko-Kalevich, Compilation and Translation (Lund, 2019).


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Peregrinacya abo Pielgrzymowanie do Ziemie Swiętey.

Cracow, W Drukarniey Antoniego Wosinskiego, 1628.


4to. pp. (viii) 356. Gothic letter. T-p and text within typographical border, large oval portrait of Mikołaj Radziwiłł to verso of t-p. Paper softened, light browning, t-p fore-edge and lower outer blank corner of last four ll. restored, small repair to lower portion of t-p, touching couple of lines of text, first couple of ll. somewhat dusty, holes to lower blank margin of F 1 and G 4 , marginal paper flaw to Z 2 , light water stain to outer blank margin of first and last few ll, lower egde of NN 2-3 uneven. A good copy in contemporary vellum, recased over modern boards, slightly splayed, small repair at head of spine, corners worn, old ink stain to lower cover. Stamps of Archivium Treterianum and H. Treter (C19), and Bibl. Treteriana (C18?), and inscriptions ‘Ta ksiazka jest E. Laibodzki dana mi ad W Jozefa Sczepanskiego 25 Apr 1816’ and ‘Kupilem z Jazdz [city of Jażdże?] 860 Hilary Treter’, all to t-p, C19 stamp of H. Treter to verso of last leaf.

The exceedingly rare Polish translation—with no copies recorded outside Poland—of the author’s journey to the Holy Land. Prince Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł (1549-1616) was a traveller, diplomat and member of a powerful aristocratic family in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1601, he achieved popularity with the publication of ‘Hierosolymitana peregrinatio’, an account, in Latin, of his travels to the Holy Land, Syria, Egypt, Italy, Greece, Crete and Cyprus in 1582-84. It was quickly published in German in 1603, and in Polish in 1607, based on the German edition. This copy was in the possession of the Treter family, purchased in 1860 by a descendant of Tomasz Treter (1547-1610), who first translated Radziwiłł’s ms., by then widely circulated, into Latin. The idea of publishing the account was promoted by the Jesuits, as part of the Counter-Reformation attempts to reignite pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These had subsided after the Ottoman conquest of Jerusalem and the Eastern Mediterranean, the more remote exploration routes, the commercial crisis between Venice and the Orient, and Reformed theologians’ criticism of pilgrimages (Longo, ‘Memorie’, 16). In his preface to the first Latin edition, Treter indeed presented Radziwiłł’s pilgrimage as a Catholic’s ‘heroic journey’, in the face of the Reformation (Noonan, ‘Road’, 187). Like its contemporary European counterparts, ‘Peregrinacya’ included itineraries and
logistic information for pilgrims, with unusual attention to ethnographic descriptions. It begins with the difficult organisation, e.g., the procurement of a passport, ‘without which one cannot go to Jerusalem’, from the Doge Nicola da Ponte in Venice, and a meeting with the Custodian of the Holy Land, Geremia da Brescia. It also reports the text of documents he needed to present to authorities along the way. The account continues with his journey to Greece and Cyprus via Dalmatia, thence to Cyprus, Jerusalem, Tripoli and Egypt. In addition to a long section on the customary holy places he visited in Jerusalem, he also mentions the situation of the Ottoman occupation in the Eastern Mediterranean. Most fascinating is the long third section, on Egypt, where he describes the ‘glory’ of Memphis and devotes three pages to the pyramids of Giza, with references to Pliny and the story of Rodopis, the prostitute who allegedly built the third pyramid with money earned through her profession. Scattered in the third part are also descriptions of Egyptian mummies, including a reference to the recent decree forbidding the trade in and export of mummies, which were used by European apothecaries for medicaments.

Only National Library of Poland copy recorded.

Estreicher, Bib. Polska, 184828; Brunet IV, 1087 (mentions first Polish ed. of 1617 [i.e., 1607] only). Not in Röricht, Bibliotheca Geographica Palaestinae. F.T. Noonan, The Road to Jerusalem (Philadelphia, 2007); P.G. Longo, Memorie di Gerusalemme (2010).


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Vox militis: foreshewing what perils are procured where the people of this, or any other kingdome liue without regard of marshall discipline

London, By B[ernard] A[lsop] for Thomas Archer, 1625.


FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. [xiv], 18, 21-58 [i.e. 56]. A-I, complete except for final blanks I3+4. Roman letter, some Italic. Woodcut initials, typographic ornaments. Light age yellowing, title slightly dusty, some marginal spots. A good copy, clean, with good margins in C19th three quarter green morocco over combed marble paper boards, title gilt in long on spine.

A rare work, a call to arms against the Spanish and Holy Roman Empire in Europe, an adaption of a work by Barnabe Rich, first published in 1578, reworked to conform with contemporary events. Rich’s second book, ‘Allarme to England’ sought to rally support, moral and financial, for England’s soldiers. Here George Marcelline adapts the work particularly in relation to Count Ernst von Mansfeld attempts to raise money and men for the attempt to recover the Palatinate. The work is dedicated to Mansfield. In 1624 Mansfield paid three visits to London. James I, the father-in-law of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, was anxious to furnish his needs for the recovery of the Palatinate, but it was not until January 1625 that Mansfeld and his army of “raw and poor rascals” sailed from Dover to the Netherlands

“The death of James I in March 1625 and the accession of Charles I did little to change the fortunes of war for the English. Charles inherited his fathers chief minister, George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham, and both men were eager to lead the country in a war against Spain, particularly after the embarrassing collapse of the Spanish match and the return of Charles and Buckingham from Madrid in 1623. That return led to the ‘Blessed revolution’, the sea change in English foreign policy that saw a renewal of the old animosity between London and Madrid and the declaration of war against Spain in 1624. The decision to go to war with Spain was greeted with cheers by those who felt Jameses government would now put its full backing behind any military operations against the Spanish, thereby avoiding the debacles that marked the expeditions commanded by Vera and Mansfield. George Marcelline summed up the concerns of many in his Vox Militis (1625), a reprinting of Barnabe Rich’s Allarme to England (1578), that warned that the English lived ‘without regard of Militarie discipline’ and were being forced to stand and behold their friends in apparent danger ‘almost subverted by there enemies unjust persecution and yet with hold[ing] their helping hand and assistance’. Marceline, who dedicated his treatise to Mansfeld, wished to resurrect the reputation of the English soldier, which by this time had taken a beating. Yet his hopes, and those of the nation, were dashed once again when another foray to the continent in 1627, this time in support of the Danes, also faltered.” David R. Lawrence. The Complete Soldier: Military Books and Military Culture in Early Stuart England.

A very good copy of this rare work.

ESTC S115890. STC 20980. Cockle 105.


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LANDI, Ortensio



Lettere di molte valorose donne

Venice, Gabriele Giolito de’ Ferrari, 1548


FIRST EDITION. 8vo. ff. 161 (iii). Italic letter, little Roman. Woodcut printer’s device to t-p and verso of last, woodcut initials. Slight yellowing, light water stain to some lower outer corners. A very good copy in c.1800 half vellum over marbled boards, gilt-lettered morocco label to spine, c.1800 casemarks to front pastedown, C19 purchase note and Italian ownership inscription to ffep and t-p, C16 underlining and marginalia.

A fresh copy of the first edition of this fictional collection of letters sent to and from important women—‘varying polemic, reproving, instructive, playful and even comic’ (Ray, ‘Writing Gender’, 45), and an important, ahead of its time, stepping stone in the success of women’s writing in early modern Italy. Published anonymously, it concludes with several sonnets by Sansovino, Dolce and Aretino which attributed the work to Ortensio Landi (or Lando, 1510-58), an Italian humanist who, after travelling through Europe, settled in Venice. There he became a ‘polygraph’ involved in editorial and translation work and the authorship of texts from different genres, aimed at the vernacular market. Accused of sympathising with heterodox religious views—including the personal understanding of the Bible and justification by faith alone—Lando saw his works added to the Index of Prohibited Books in 1544 and had to write under pseudonyms. The ‘Lettere’ gathers fictional epistles written by dozens of ‘wise women’, which the editor purported to have collected during his peregrinations. Some of the correspondents were indeed contemporary to Landi, often his patrons—e.g., Isabella Sforza and Isabella Gonzaga—but also invented figures like the Jewish lady of Mantua. Fascinating is the letter by Clara de’ Nobili, the wife of a physician, addressing in unusually physiological language the problems of fecundity and sterility—whether due to the woman’s body or her husband’s semen—and the specifics of conception. She also proposes to her friend and her husband a leisurely visit to their villa to favour conception, with the possibility of aphrodisiac medicaments. In her letter, Mamma Riminalda discusses pregnancy, giving advice and suggesting recipes to women struggling with side effects like swollen feet. In the context of learned debates on female authorship, Lando’s treatise generated a great interest in a book market increasingly keen on women’s writing. The careful early Italian annotator of this copy was studying it for its literary value. He or she was interested in the numerous classical references and mythological episodes, often involving women and gory acts (e.g., King Camble who ate his wife for gluttony one night), as well as in the use of similes, allegories of virtue and vice, and even recipes for medical concoctions. The sections on conception and pregnancy are also marked, especially the physiological descriptions. Was the annotator a young, educated woman?

BM STC It., p. 376; Annali di Giolito, p. 237; Fontanini II, 121; Melzi, Opere anonime e pseudonime, II, 115. Not in Gay. M.K. Ray, Writing Gender in Women’s Letter (Toronto, 2009).


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VARGAS MEJIA, Francisco de

Francisci Vargas Catholicae maestatis rerum status a consiliis,& eiusdem apud Sanctiss. D.N. Pium IIII. oratoris. De episcoporum iurisdictione, et pontificis max. auctoritate, responsum

Rome, apud Paulum Manutium Aldi f. in aedibus populi Romani, 1563.


FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. [xvi], 160. A-Y4. Roman letter, some Italic. Capital spaces with guide letters. Woodcut Aldine device on title. C19th engraved armorial bookplate of a Scottish Earl on pastedown with motto ‘La Virtue est la seule Noblesse’, bookplate of the Los Angeles Law library on fly, earlier autograph of ‘Joseph Sainpanhy?’ on t-p. Light age yellowing, some minor spotting in places. A good copy in c1800 half calf over marbled boards, spine gilt ruled in compartments, rebacked and remounted, red morocco label, corners worn, all edges sprinkled red.

Uncommon first edition of this interesting work, finely printed by Paulus Manutius, in which Vargas discusses at length and in great detail the jurisdiction of the Pope’s power and that of the Archbishops and Bishops, a subject of capital importance in C16th century Europe, riven by religious war, and even in the legitimising of the conquests made by European nations in the New World. The limits of Papal power were being tested across Europe and particularly with the rise of Protestantism. Vargas’s work could be considered part of the counter-reformation battle to restate in the clearest terms the extent and legitimacy of Papal jurisdiction. In his work on the legitimacy of the Spanish conquest of the Americas, ‘De Indiarum Jure’ “Solorzano also recognized that the debate about legitimacy of the conquest was not simply an issue involving the Spanish and the inhabitants of the Americas. It was also an issue that involved the power of the papacy. He cited, to give but two examples, a treatise on papal and episcopal jurisdiction by Francisco à Vargas (d. 1577) and a treatise by Cardinal Bellarmine (1542-1621) on Papal authority. These and similar citations emphasized that the debate about the right of the Spanish to conquer the Americas was ultimately linked to the debate about the papacy that was central to  he Protestant reformers’ attack on the Catholic Church.” James Muldoon. “The Americas in the Spanish World Order: The Justification for Conquest in the seventeenth century.”

This work was printed by Paulus Manutius’ press in Rome, in which he produced mostly religious works for the ecclesiastical authorities. This aspect of his printing has often been overlooked in the discussion of his genius. “The contrast between this committed classicism and the sequence of catechisms or conciliar decrees which poured from the Aldine press after its move to Rome seems so complete that bibliographers have revealed some embarrassment in tracing them to the same person. Antoine-Augustin Renouard, on whose re- search all subsequent Aldine studies have been based, had steeped himself in the secular values of the Encyclopedistes during the 1780s and harangued the National Assembly on its cultural mission during the Revolution. To him, an alliance between humanism and priestcraft was inconceivable. Though he had found a draft of the terms submitted by Paulus to the papacy, which he published along with the relevant correspondence of the papal legate Girolamo Seripando in the third edition of his Annales, Renouard could only conclude that the move compelled Paulus to “break off his studies”, and that it was forced upon him by his difficult situation in Venice. …Only recently has the appearance of new evidence revealed that the two aspects of Paulus’ career were intimately connected, and that only the most tragic accidents or confusions divided them.” Martin Lowry “Facing the Responsibility of Paulus Manutius”

Renouard 188:6. Adams II, V 272. Palau XXV, p.270.


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