DE RE RUSTICA.

THE QUAKER ROBERT BARCLAY’S COPY

CATO, Marcus Porcius, VARRO, Marcus Terentius, COLUMELLA, Junius Moderatus, PALLADIUS, Rutilius Taurus. De re rustica.

Cologne, Johannes Gymnicus, 1536.

£

8vo. pp. (xxxii) 814 (x). Roman letter. Woodcut printer’s device to t-p, 15 small woodcuts of agricultural instruments or diagrams, decorated initials. T-p a bit dusty, small marginal hole, light marginal stain to some early and final ll., Ii2-3 cleanly torn and repaired, dislocating couple of letters, far lower outer blank corner of Ii5 lost, small scattered worm holes to margins of last two gatherings. A very good copy in contemporary probably Polish (Gdánsk?) calf over wooden boards, two brass clasps, double blind ruled, outer border with Mercury(?) and female half-figures, centre panel with (upper cover) blind-stamped ivy leaf and blind-tooled inscription THESMA / RVSALLE / BEKENPO / MERANV(?) / ANNO / DOMI / NI / 1539, (lower) blind-stamped fleurons and rosettes, raised bands, flaw to upper cover affecting one blind-stamped letter, small worm holes to lower edge of lower cover. C17 bookplate of Robert Barclay of Urie (Scotland), inscriptions ‘John Cox Booke 1661’ and another C17 crossed out to ffep, t-p with C17 inscription ‘Barclay Ury’, C16 ‘Ioann Weisser (?)’ and early casemark, C16 bibliographic inscription and C16 ‘Thesmarus Alebeke Pomeranus’ to rear pastedown. In modern folding box.

This copy belonged to Robert Barclay (1648-90) of Ury, Scotland—a major early member of the Society of Friends. His ‘An Apology for the True Christian Divinity’ (1676), written in light of the anti-Quakers controversies of the 1670s, became the most authoritative defence of their doctrines, and one of the most remarkable theological works of the time. From 1682, and without ever visiting the colony, Barclay was appointed governor of East New Jersey by its twelve buyers, eleven of them Quakers, who purchased the territory after the death of Sir George Cartelet. Among them was his long-term friend William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania in 1681. John Cox, who owned this copy in 1661, is listed in Quaker documents of the 1670s alongside Penn and Barclay (‘Exalted Diotrephes’, 28). He was most probably the John Cox from Gloucestershire who ‘emigrated to America with his wife and three children in 1688. He settled first in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, but removed later to […] New Jersey. […] He was the progenitor of many of the well-known Quaker Cox families of New Jersey and Pennsylvania’ (Cox, ‘Cox Family’, 37).

The handsome binding was produced for the earliest owner, Thesmarus Allebeke (fl. early C16), from Pomerania. In 1545, he was rector of the schools at St John’s and St Mary’s churches in Gdánsk. After returning to Catholicism, he was a priest at Cedry Wielkie, near Gdánsk. He owned a rich library of classical authors, including incunables, which bore similar bindings (‘Katalog Inkunabułów Biblioteki Miejskiej w Gdańsku’, 257).

A very good, handsomely bound copy. This florilegium of agricultural works was devised for a readership interested in the classical rustic virtues of landownership and the practical aspects of country life, with topics as varied as the best place to set up a beehive, horticulture, remedies for dogs with flees and sick horses, ways to scare off snakes stabling and regulations for workers. Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 BC) was a Roman statesman, military officer and author. His only complete, extant work, ‘De Agri Cultura’ (c.160 BC) is a manual on the management of a country estate reliant on slaves, with a special interest in the cultivation of vines. A prolific writer patronised by Augustus, Marcus Terentius Varro (116-107BC) based his ‘Rerum rusticarum libri tres’ on his direct experience of farming. He notably warns his readers to avoid marshlands, where ‘animalia minuta’ that cannot be seen by the human eye may be breathed in or swallowed and cause illnesses. A soldier and farmer, Lucius Moderatus Columella (4-70AD) is best known for his ‘Res rustica’, which deals with a wealth of activities including the cultivation of vines and olives, the farming and treatment of animals, and the management of workers. Inspired by Columella and much admired in the medieval period, Palladius’s (C4-5AD) ‘Opus agriculturae’ (or ‘De re rustica’) provides an account of the typical monthly activities of a Roman farm, and mentions the utility of building mills over abundant waterways to grind wheat. This edition features commentaries by Georgius Alexandrinus, Philippus Beroaldus and Aldus. Beautifully bound, with fascinating provenance.

Columbia, UCB, NYBG, NLM, Oberlin, Illinois, KU and Rutgers copies recorded in the US.

Graesse VI, 331; BM STC Ger., p.187. An Exalted Diotrephes Reprehended (London, 1681); H.M. Cox, The Cox family in America (New York, 1912).

L3311

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MARKHAM, Gervase

Markhams farewell to husbandry: or, the enriching of all sorts of barren and steril grounds in our kingdome,.

London, Printed by Nicholas Okes for Iohn Harison, at the signe of the golden Vnicorne in Pater-noster-row, 1631.

£950

4to. pp. [xii], 28, 19-158. A B-L M. Roman letter, some Italic. Woodcut floriated initials, woodcut and typographical headpieces, numerous small woodcuts in the text of early farming tools and implements, blind stamp of the ‘Wigan free Public Library’ on first and last two leaves. Light age yellowing, rare marginal spot or mark, small repair to blank verso of fore-edge of t-p and following leaf. A very good copy, clean with good margins, in modern quarter calf over marbled boards, a.e.r.

Third edition ‘revised, corrected, and amended, together with many new additions,’ of this important and innovative agricultural work by Markham, on the preparation and improvement of soils and on arable farming generally. “Soil husbandry began to be seen as the key to productive, profitable farming. Gervase Markham, one of the first agricultural writers to write in English instead of Latin, described soils as various mixtures of clay, sand, and gravel. What made good soil depended on the local climate, the character and condition of the soil, and the local plants (crops). “Simple Clays, Sands, or Gravels together; may be all good, and all fit to bring forth increase, or all … barren.” Understanding the soil was the key to understanding what would grow best, and essential to keeping a farm productive. “Thus having a true knowledge of the Nature and Condition of your ground…. it may not only be purged and clensed … but also so much bettered and refined.” Prescribing steps to improve British farms, Markham recommended using the right type of plow for the ground. He advised mixing river sand and crushed burned limestone into the soil, to be followed by the best manure to be had, preferably ox, cow, or horse dung. In describing procedures for improving barren soils, Markham advocated growing wheat or rye for two years in a field, and then letting sheep graze and manure it for a year. After the sheep, several crops of barley were to be followed in the seventh year by peas or beans, and then several more years as pasture. After this cycle the ground would be much improved for growing grain. The key to sustaining soil fertility was to alternate livestock and   crops on the same piece of ground. Equally important, although it received less attention, was preventing erosion of the soil itself. Markham advised plowing carefully to avoid collecting water into erosive gullies. Good soil was the key to a good farm, and keeping soil on the farm required special effort even on England’s gentle rolling hills.” David R. Montgomery. “Dirt. The Erosion of Civilizations” The work also deals with the preservation of grains and pulses, including a section on the best grain to take to sea (which he concludes is rice). It also contains two chapters at the end on the husbandry of cattle for plowing.

“Many books on agriculture and gardening were published during the century, but from the historical point of view the most important are those of Markham, because they appeared at an early stage in the new development, were widely read, and full of useful information and sound advice. Markham was a too prolific writer, but one can forgive his constant repetition and shameless re-issuing of unsold books under a new title for the great influence his writings had on English agriculture. His most important work was ‘Markhams farewell to husbandry.’ It dealt fully and expertly not only with ploughing, sowing and harvesting, but with methods such as sanding, lining, marling and manuring, by which fertility of land could be increased.” Anne Wilbraham ‘The Englishman’s Food: Five Centuries of English Diet’.

STC 17374. ESTC S112113. Poynter. P. 132 No. 24 (1620 edn.)

L2678

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BUTLER, Charles

The Feminine Monarchie.

Oxford, Joseph Barnes, 1609.

£19,500

FIRST EDITION, 8vo. 90 unnumbered ll. a, b, A-N, O. Roman letter, some Italic. Small woodcut printer’s device on t-p, floriated woodcut initials, typographical head and tail-pieces, woodcut music and diagrams in text, book plate of James Elwin Millard (1824 – 1894) on pastedown, his blind-stamp with monogram on t-p. Light age yellowing, t-p a little dusty at fore-edge, very minor marginal spotting in places, the occasional mark or stain, small tear to lower outer corner of F2 affecting side note on recto. A very good copy, crisp and clean in C19 dark olive morocco, covers bordered with a double gilt-rule, spine with raised bands gilt-ruled in compartments, gilt acorn fleuron at centres, a.e.r., fractionally rubbed at extremities.

Rare and important first edition of the first full-length, practical English treatise on Beekeeping. Known as the Father of English Beekeeping, Butler addresses in his preface the great classical tradition that relies upon “the Muses birds” as models of religion, government and labor, “worthily to bee most admired”, but notes that Philosophers “in al their writings they seeme vnto me to say little out of experience”. Butler’s treatise is the first to argue that worker bees were female, not male, and the first to popularise the idea in England that the hive is lead not by a king but a queen bee. Not only do these points ground Butler’s practical treatise firmly in methods of entymological observation that would be refined by the end of the century in books such as Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (1665), but they also relate directly contemporary political debates that made use of bee hierarchy as a model for government.

The book identifies the habits of bees, the importance of hierarchy, the tools necessary in breeding them (“for the behoofe of men”), their enemies, and the months during which to care for and harvest the hives. It also provides in great detail an account of swarming and its prevention, even to the extent that Butler includes scored music that replicates the sound “Bee-masters” can expect to hear in their hive before swarming (“the Queene in a deeper voice”). In the aftermath of a swarm, Butler also offers chapters for each of the places the bees might go, from “upon a high bough” to “into a hollow tree”, and their recovery.

Butler also wrote an important treatise on musical theory and includes in this work a remarkable section in which he attempts to transcribe the sound of the Queen bee in musical notation. “Charles Butler was a highly original scholar whose books included a treatise on bees entitled ‘The feminine monarchie’, … In this work Butler attempted to transcribe into musical notation the ‘piping’ and ‘quacking’ sounds produced by rival queens within a hive. Quacking is the responsive sound of rival queens who have not yet emerged from their cells, and piping is the regal identification of a virgin queen soon after she has emerged from the cell in which she developed. The 1609 edition shows a four line staff with the letter G on the second line from the bottom indicating that this is a treble clef. There are no bar lines but the two semibreve rests at the beginning of the staves indicate that we are in a triple metre, and indeed the text states that the bees ‘sing’ in triple time. The notation indicates that the two most common results of the simultaneous piping and quacking of the rival queens are the musical intervals of either a perfect fifth or a major third.” The Moir collection.

A rare book, especially in good condition.

ESTC S107149. STC 4192, Lowndes I 333. Madan 73.1 “the first music printed at Oxford”.

L3304

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CATO, Marcus Porcius, VARRO, Marcus Terentius, COLUMELLA, Junius Moderatus, PALLADIUS, Rutilius Taurus

De re rustica.

Reggio Emilia, Bartholomaeus de Bruschis, Bottonus, 5 June 1482.

£15,000

Folio. 4 parts in 1, with continuous pagination. 310 unnumbered ll., A6 a8 b-c10 d8 e-g10 i8 K10 (K1 blank) L10 m-s8 &888 2a8 2b12 (2b1 blank) 2c-2d8 2e-2h10 [chi]2(-2), lacking final blanks. Roman letter, little Greek. 8- and 3-line initials, chapter headings on b6-7 and 2-line initials on 2c2-3 all supplied in red. Lower outer edge of some ll. slightly worn, very slight water stain at gutter of final ll., occasional minor spotting or finger-soiling to outer upper blank margin, printer’s smudge to upper outer blank corner of C9, small worm holes at gutter of 2c8-2h10, outer margin of penultimate and last leaf repaired with traces of glue, blank recto of first and verso of last very slightly soiled. A handsome, well-margined copy, on thick paper, in marbled boards c1800, edges and joints worn, ancient paper labels to spine. Bookplate and shelfmark of Biblioteca Terzi to front pastedown, stamps of Lawes Agricultural Trust to front and rear pastedowns, slightly later ex-libris ‘Petri Matthei Plebani Canonici Ecclesiae (?) Bergomi h 68 9’ to foot of last, occasional C16 annotations in red and black-brown ink.

‘Bel exemplaire de cette édition, extrêmement rare’ (‘Catalogue des livres…de la bibliothèque de feu M. le marquis De Terzi’, this copy, 1861, lot 195). The earliest recorded private owner of this copy was a priest in Bergamo, and the last the Bergamese Marquis de Terzi. It was the second edition issued in northern Italy, and one of only three works printed by the de Bruschis—the first printers in Reggio Emilia. ‘This is a good example of the rivalry between the prototypographers, five Italian incunabula of the “Scriptores rei rusticae”, by five different printers, in three cities; three editions by three different printers in one of them, Reggio Emilia […] After that the tradition of the four “Scriptores” was common’ (Sarton, ‘Hellenistic Science and Culture’, 388). This florilegium of agricultural works was devised for a readership interested in the classical rustic virtues of landownership and the practical aspects of country life, with topics as varied as the best place to set up a beehive, horticulture, remedies for dogs with flees and sick horses, ways to scare snakes off stables and regulations for workers. Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 BC) was a Roman statesman, military officer and author. His only complete, extant work, ‘De Agri Cultura’ (c.160 BC) is a manual on the management of a country estate reliant on slaves, with a special interest in the cultivation of vines. A prolific writer patronised by Augustus, Marcus Terentius Varro (116-107BC) based his ‘Rerum rusticarum libri tres’ on his direct experience of farming. He notably warns his readers to avoid marshlands, where ‘animalia minuta’ that cannot be seen by the human eye may be breathed in or swallowed and cause illnesses. A soldier and farmer, Lucius Moderatus Columella (4-70AD) is best known for his ‘Res rustica’—in this edition with a commentary by Pomponius Laetus—which deals with a wealth of activities including the cultivation of vines and olives, the farming and treatment of animals, and the management of workers. Inspired by Columella and much admired in the medieval period, Palladius’s (C4-5AD) ‘Opus agriculturae’ (or ‘De re rustica’) provides an account of the typical monthly activities of a Roman farm, and mentions the utility of building mills over abundant waterways to grind wheat. A well-margined copy with very practical marginalia—highlighting sections on castrating chickens—suggesting a landowner’s everyday use.

Boston PL, Harvard, LC, Michigan State, Huntington, Newberry and Walters Art Museum copies recorded in the US.

BMC VII 1086; Goff S347; HC 14565*; GW M41059. Not in Simon or Oberlé. Catalogue des livres rares et précieux provenant de la bibliothèque de feu M. le marquis De Terzi de Bergame (Paris, 1861); G. Sarton, Hellenistic Science and Culture in the Last Three Centuries B.C. (Cambridge, MA, 1959).

K137

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MARKHAM, Gervase

A Way To Get Wealth: Containing sixe Principall Vocations or Callings, in which every good Husband or House-wife may lawfully imploy themselves… 

London : Printed by E[dward] G[riffin] for John Harison, 1638

£4,950

4to.six vols in one. pp. [xxviii], 132, 135-188, [ii] [last blank]; [viii], 118, [ii] [without last blank]; [xii], 252 [first blank]; [iv], 24 [bound out of order, quires A and B inverted}; [xii], 32, 23-158; [viii], 133, [i]. “A reissue, with added general title page, of “Cheape and good husbandry”, 6th ed., 1631; “Country contentments”, 5th ed., 1633; “The English house-wife”, 5th ed., 1637; “The inrichment of the weald of Kent .. revised, inlarged, and corrected”, 1636; “Markhams farewell to husbandry”, 4th ed., 1638; all by or edited by Gervaise Markham and “A new orchard and garden”, 3rd ed., 1638, by William Lawson.” ESTC. Roman Letter, some Italic. woodcut illustrations, woodcut initials, head and tail-pieces, typographical ornaments. Contemporary manuscript inscription to front endpaper “Mr. William Priore of the ..of Hereford Meer is the true owner of this book parchased him 7/8′, May 26 1641” autograph repeated directly below, another on verso: “Mr. William Priore is my nam if you me find Restor this sam…, 1646”, bookplate of the Bibliothecca Piscatoria Lynniana on pastedown, Bibliotheca Tiliana below, their discreet inkstamp to verso of title for Cheape and Good Husbandry. Light age yellowing, general title with a few spots, larger at end of ‘Country contentments’, on a few leaves of ‘the English House-wife’, and last four leaves, occasional mark or minor stains to blank margins, the odd thumb mark. Generally a very good and unsophisticated copy, crisp and clean in contemporary calf, covers bordered with a triple blind rule, spine double blind ruled in compartments, restored at head and tail, a little rubbed, a.e.r.

An excellent and rare sammelband of some of Markhams most important works with an edition of Lawson’s ‘A new orchard and garden’ reissued here with an additional general title page by John Harrison, probably to sell unsold copies. It forms an important collection of Markham’s best works on husbandry in the most complete editions. Markham’s Farewell to Husbandry is an important and innovative agricultural work on the preparation and improvement of soils and on arable farming generally. The work also deals with the preservation of grains and pulses, including a section on the best grain to take to sea (which he concludes is rice). It also contains two chapters at the end on the husbandry of cattle for ploughing. “In the pamphlet, ’The inrichment of the weald of Kent’ of 1625, the Author advocated a systematic program for improving the productivity of the ‘unapt’ soils of the region. It was to be based on the regular spreading of Marl (which was commonly found in the Weald) to enrich the ground, and, equally important, the introduction of ley farming to the enclosed fields which have previously been used for either pasture or arable.”Michael Zell ‘Industry in the Countryside: Wealden Society in the Sixteenth Century’

The English housewife contains a huge variety of detailed recipes and information, the majority concerning the preparation of food and drink, with smaller sections on medicine, household remedies and weaving. Markham starts with a brief description of the ideal temperament of a housewife, before moving on to household remedies “for the curing of those ordinary sickenesses which daily perturb the health of men and Women”. Apart from the usual (C16th) remedies there are many concerning childbirth, and cosmetics, with a very interesting section at the end on how to make various oils, such as oil of lavender and camomile, for such things as “to make smooth hands”. The next and most substantial chapter in on cookery, starting with a description of how to maintain a garden to supply the kitchen. Many of the recipes are for classics of English cookery such as rice and bread pudding, trifle, custards, ‘Gammon of bacon pie’, apple tart, and ‘marmalad’ among many others. The work then moves on to distillation and the making of many “aqua-vitae” and various “waters”, and concludes with a section on the making of perfumes. Then comes a short chapter on the keeping and preserving of wine, including a description of ‘Burdeaux’ and ‘Renish’ wines, and how to choose them and ‘remedy’ them. A short chapter on weaving and dying of wool is followed by chapters on dairy work and the making of a whole variety of cheeses and butter, the making of Malt and bread making and finishes with how to brew beer, ales, cider and perry.

The final work is the beautifully illustrated work on gardening, the only published work of William Lawson, all early editions of which are now rare. “A man of some learning, he evidently read widely on agriculture and gardening, and his two works are also scattered with references to the classics. When he died he willed ‘all my latine books & mie English books of contraversie’ to his son William, which suggests that he may well have owned a relatively substantial library of books for the period.” Julie Gardham – Glasgow University Library Special collections. Within a small compass he provides sound instruction for ‘planting, grafting as to make any ground good, for a rich Orchard’ particularly in the north. The section entitled ‘the County Houswife’s Garden’ is valuable for its attention to the essential role of women in the rural household, as cooks, nurturers of fine flowers and keepers of the herbal medicine cupboard. Also appended, is Simon Harwood’s short treatise on the art of propagating plants and another, which may be by Lawson or Harwood, on how to increase the yield from a wide selection of fruits. A simple practical work written with much charm by an obvious enthusiast and still eminently readable

“Many books on agriculture and gardening were published during the century, but from the historical point of view the most important are those of Markham, because they appeared at an early stage in the new development, were widely read, and full of useful information and sound advice. … His most important work was ‘Markhams farewell to husbandry.’ It dealt fully and expertly not only with ploughing, sowing and harvesting, but with methods such as sanding, lining, marling and manuring, by which fertility of land could be increased.” Anne Wilbraham ‘The Englishman’s Food: Five Centuries of English Diet’.

ESTC S112152; Kress 688; STC 17397. Hull ‘Chaste, silent and Obedient’ pp. 185-6  “The English housewife”.

L3263

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ALONSO DE HERRERA, Gabriel

UNRECORDED IN U.S.

Libro de agricultura.

[n.p.], [n.d.], [c.1539-40].

£7,950

Folio. ff. (ii) 200. Large Gothic letter, double column. T-p in red and black framed by architectural arch with putti and royal arms of Spain above, small heads, phoenixes and interlacing cranes at sides, and putti flanked by birds chasing dogs beneath; decorated initials. Very faint ink mark to t-p, minimal mainly marginal spotting, small expert repair to outer blank margin of fol. 66, few ll. slightly browned. An excellent copy in modern half calf over cloth boards, spine gilt. Bookplate of Andre Simon to front pastedown, early ecclesiastical ex-libris to verso of t-p, inked over, occasional early annotations.

Excellent copy of this remarkably rare edition in Castilian of a C16 bestselling manual on the best practice and secrets of agriculture—‘one of the fundamental texts of the Spanish Renaissance’ (Rodilla, ‘La Medicina’, 437). This edition, with no information on printer, place and date of publication, appears to be unrecorded in major bibliographies, except that of Andre Simon, who calls it ‘contemporary to the edition of 1539’ printed by Brocar in Alcalá de Henares. Gabriel Alonso de Herrera (1470-1539) was a Franciscan agronomist and brother to the humanist Hernando and the musician Diego Alonso de Herrera. He is most renowned for this ‘Libro de agricultura’, first printed in Castilian in Spain in 1513, which underwent 12 editions in the C16 alone and was translated into Latin, Italian and French. It was a compilation based on a variety of agricultural and medical sources, including Greek (Galen and Hippocrates), Arabic (Avenzoar and Avicenna), and Latin ‘De re rustica’ authors (Columella, Cato, Varro and Palladius). Following the classical tradition, Herrera presented a holistic view of the agronomist as knowledgeable in the cultivation of crops and trees, techniques for making soil and water suitable for agriculture and horticulture (e.g., how to fix defects in wine), the forecast of adverse weather conditions, farming and herbal medical remedies. He also injected into this solid tradition new ideas—based on contemporary agricultural theories and his own experience—concerning the identification of high-quality seed which should be grown separately from the rest to improve the quality of crops, as well as plant reproductive morphology, i.e., he believed that plants could be masculine or feminine. The intended readership was ‘on the one hand…the more or less rich landlords; but, on the other hand, the medical advice it offers and the therapeutic evaluation it performs of each plant suggest that its interlocutors were the “farmers of towns and villages where the presence of a doctor was inconceivable”’, an illiterate audience to whom this matter was reported orally and whom Herrera sought to reach more easily, for the first time in Europe, by using the vernacular (García, ‘El Libro de Agricultura’, 6, 10). A very rare edition of this pioneering, enormously influential agricultural manual. 

Andre Simon (1877-1970) was a wine merchant and author of numerous works on wine, including the famous bibliography ‘Bibliotheca bacchica’.

No copies recorded in the US.

Simon 337: ‘contemporaine de celle de 1539’. Not in Palau, Wilkinson, Iberian Books, BL STC Sp., Oberlé or Bitting. M. Quirós García, ‘El Libro de Agricultura de Gabriel Alonso de Herrera: un texto en busca de edición’, Criticón 135 (2015); B.M. Gutiérrez Rodilla & M. Quirós García, ‘La Medicina en el Libro De Agricultura de Gabriel Alonso de Herrera’, Romance Philology 71 (2017), 437-66.

L2965

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XENOPHON

Treatise of Housholde.

London, In ædibus Thomæ Bertheleti typis impress, 1544.

£5,500

8vo. ff. 62, [ii]. Signatures: A-H. [without last blank]. Black letter. title within woodcut border, historiated woodcut initials, stamp of “Rothamsted Experimental station” on fly. Light age yellowing, title page a little dusty, the odd marginal mark or spot. A very good copy, crisp and clean, in speckled calf c. 1700, covers bordered with a single gilt rule, rebacked to match, spine with gilt ruled raised bands, a.e.r.

Beautifully printed and very rare edition (probably the third) of the translation of part of Xenophon’s ‘Oeconomicus’ into English by the French theologian and Greek scholar Gentian Hervet. This was the most popular English work on women’s household duties of the C16th in England going through six editions by 1573. It was also the first translation anywhere of Xenophon into the vernacular. “Chapters 7 to 10 of Xenophon’s Oeconomicus contain a dialogue between Isomachus, a rich property owner, and his young wife, whom he instructs in household management. The work was much admired in the Renaissance and was translated into English in 1532 by Gentian Hervet, a member of the household of Lady Margaret, countess of Salisbury, who was Queen Catherine’s friend and governess. Xenohphon’s treatise of Householde was the first direct translation of any work from Greek into English that can be dated.” Charles Fantazzi. ‘The Education of a Christian Woman: A Sixteenth-Century Manual By Juan Luis Vives.’ “Initially educated in France, Hervet spent some of his early career in the 1520’s and 1530’s in England where he developed a close association with the Pole family. .. and in 1526 he translated into English a copy of Erasmus’ ‘Dei immensa misericodia’ at the request of their mother, the countess Margearet of Salisbury. In 1532 Hervet dedicated another English translation, this time to Xenophon’s Treatise of Householde, to Geoffrey. Hervet was a proficient linguist, and fluent in English.” Isabel Davis. ‘Chaucer and Fame: Reputation and Reception.’ Hervet updated the language and customs in the work to a contemporary period, changing things such as translating slaves as servants etc.

The Oeconomicus by Xenophon is a Socratic dialogue principally about household management and agriculture. It is one of the earliest works on economics in its original sense of household management, and a significant source for the social and intellectual history of Classical Athens. Beyond the emphasis on household economics, the dialogue treats such topics as the qualities and relationships of men and women, rural vs. urban life, slavery, religion, and education. Scholars lean towards a relatively late date in Xenophon’s life for the composition of the Oeconomicus, perhaps after 362 BC. Cicero translated the Oeconomicus into Latin, and the work gained popularity during the Renaissance in a number of translations. Hervet’s English version was particularly influential in England.

ESTC S120529. STC 26072. Lowndes 3013. Hull, Chaste Silent & Obedient p. 219 1st edn. (see also page 49). Not in Erdmann.

L2967

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JENNER, Thomas

Londons blame, if not its shame: manifested by the great neglect of the fishery, which affordeth to our neighbor nation yeerly, the revenue of many millions.

[London], Printed for T[homas] J[enner] at the south entrance of the Royal Exchange, 1651.

£1,750

FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. [ii], 14. A-B4. Roman letter some Italic. Title within typographical border, woodcut initials, typographical and woodcut ornaments. Light browning, fore-edge of t-p slightly chipped, occasional marginal spot or stain. A good copy, well margined, in modern marbled paper boards.

Rare first edition of this interesting work on fisheries and the lack of their exploitation by the British fishing industry, an important early treatise in the benefits of concerted investment in a particular industry. The work set out in eight clear points why such an investment would be beneficial from an “Encrease in Shipping” and an “Encrease of private Wealth” to an “Encrease of Power abroad”. “Jenner was one of the main London print publishers and sellers; his active career spanned over half a century. His beginnings remain obscure. He was a member of the Grocers’ Company, and was possibly the Thomas Jenneu, son of James, who received his freedom in 1619. His earliest publication, a portrait by Delaram (Hind II 229.28), is securely dated to 1618. There are strong reasons for thinking that he took over the short-lived business of Maurice Blount which was at the same address. … The prints made for him in 1621 by Willem de Passe, who was married to an ‘Elisabeth Jennerts’ – presumably a relation – were the finest produced in London at the time, and were entered into the Stationers’ register on his behalf by George Fairbeard. Jenner still produced some significant plates in the 1630s (eg the portrait of the Earl of Northumberland by Cornelis van Dalen, Hind III 254.5), but his stock went steadily down-market over the years, and by his death he was only a marginal figure. .. In 1651 he wrote a political pamphlet, ‘London’s blame if not its shame’, attacking supine government policy over the fishing industry. Although Jenner was a specialist print publisher, many of his publications include letterpress.” British Museum.

“Not all Jenner’s books were devotional, and with London’s Blame if not its Shame (1651) he revealed both patriotism and business acumen. The work is a plea for developing the fishing of English coastal waters which, Jenner argues, if efficiently exploited would not only provide a vital source of food but also give employment ‘for a thousand Ships, and at least twenty thousand Fishermen and Mariners at Sea, and consequently as for as many Tradesmen and Labourers at Land’ (London’s Blame, 10).” DNB.

“Although seventeenth-century writers often stated the principle that the gain of one party in trade was at the expense of the other, suggesting a finite understanding of commerce, they were simultaneously able to envisage how it might expand without resulting in a corresponding loss. Most simply, it was possible to increase agricultural and industrial production alike: English territories contained vast natural resources ripe for exploitation, as reflected in the huge number of agricultural pamphlets of the period, as well as a burgeoning interest in technological inventions, in mining, land drainage, and numerous other enterprises. And if husbandry could fuel expanded trade, the seas surrounding Britain offered what was believed to be ‘a continual Sea-harvest of grain’, from ‘infinite shoals and multitudes of Fishes’. T. Jenner, Londons blame, if not its shame (London, 1651), p. 1.” Leng, T. ‘Commercial conflict and regulation in the discourse of trade in seventeenth-century England.’

ESTC R202638. Wing J667. Thomason, E.624 [4]. Goldsmiths’-Kress no.1199.

L2771

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ALONSO DE HERRERA, Gabriel

Libro de agricultura.

Pamplona, por Matías Mares a costa de Fernando de Espinal, 1605.

£6,750

Large 4to. ff. (iv + 1 added leaf of errata) 242, lacking final 12 ll. (additional work printed separately and mentioned on the t-p). Roman letter, little Italic. Woodcut vignette to t-p, decorated initials and headpieces. Light waterstaining to first three gatherings, occasionally to margins throughout, outer margin of t-p dust-soiled and a bit frayed, intermittent mainly marginal foxing, slight browning in places, clean tear with no loss to blank lower margin of fol. 21, small worm trail to blank outer margin of few gatherings, another to text touching a few letters, scattered ink spots, little thumbing, part of one column of text repaired and partially supplied in a contemporary hand to p. 127, slight offsetting to p. 228, clean cuts with no loss along gutter to last leaf. A good copy in contemporary vellum, traces of ties, ‘Períbañez’ inked to upper cover. Stamp of Rothamsted Research Centre to fep, inquisitorial inscription ‘no ay que expurgar conforme al expurgatorio del anno 1640. Pamp[lona] a 22 de Julio 1642(?). Don Joseph de Aguerre’, some early annotation.

 Very scarce edition of this extremely successful and ground-breaking manual of agriculture in Castilian. Gabriel Alonso de Herrera (1470-1539) was a Franciscan agronomist and brother to the humanist Hernando and the musician Diego Alonso de Herrera. He is most renowned for this ‘Libro de agricultura’, first printed in Spain in 1513, which underwent over 20 editions in just a few decades and was translated into Latin, Italian and French. It was a compilation based on a variety of agricultural and medical sources, including Greek (Galen and Hippocrates), Arabic (Avenzoar and Avicenna), and Latin ‘De re rustica’ authors (Columella, Cato, Varro and Palladius). Following the classical tradition, Herrera presented a holistic view of the agronomist as knowledgeable in the cultivation of crops and trees, techniques for making soil and water suitable for agriculture and horticulture, the forecast of adverse weather conditions, farming and herbal medical remedies. He also injected into this solid tradition new ideas—based on contemporary agricultural theories and his own experience—concerning the identification of high-quality seed which should be grown separately from the rest to improve the quality of crops, as well as plant reproductive morphology, i.e., he believed that plants could be masculine or feminine. Juan de Valverde’s ‘Despertador’ and Gutiérrez Salinas’s ‘Discursos’ similarly deal with agricultural and horticultural techniques; the first also discusses farming and the use of beasts of burden as well as the remedies to preserve one’s estate in times of famine and inclement weather.

The printer, Matías Mares, intended this text to be bound together with Juan de Valverde’s ‘Despertador’, Diego Gutiérrez Salinas’s ‘Discursos del pan y del vino del Niño Jesús’—originally printed in Alcalá de Henares in 1600 and here summarised—and Gregorio de los Rios’s ‘Agricultura de jardines’ printed in Zaragoza in 1604. This copy contains the 4 ll. of preliminaries (plus an additional leaf of errata) and 242 ll. of text which encompass the (complete) works by Herrera, Valverde and Salinas. The 12 ll. containing de los Rios’s work were not bound in this copy, as Palau, see below. Unlike the other works the Los Rios has its own t-p and pagination, for issue separately.

José de Aguirre SJ was an Inquisitor whose ‘expurgatorio’ dating from the 1640s is recorded in other Spanish books. He authored the pamphlet ‘Profecía de Santa Hildegardis’.

Only Columbia, WSU and LC copies recorded in the US.

Brunet III, 131; Graesse III, 260; Wilkinson, Iberian Books 20625; Palau 114100; Pritzel, Thesaurus Literaturae Botanicae, 4411. Not in Oberlé or Bitting.

L2968(2)

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AUGUSTÍN, Miguel

SCARCE AND LIVELY ILLUSTRATED AGRICULTURE

Libro de los secretos de agricultura.

Zaragoza, Pascual Bueno, [1625]

£3,300

FIRST EDITION thus. 4to. pp. (viii) 512 (A3-4 misplaced before C1), 1 large fold-out plate. Roman letter. T-p with typographic border and woodcut vignette of Saturn surrounded by Gemini, Aries and four dragons, 18 ¼- or ½-page woodcuts of schemas, agricultural activities, animals and buildings, 1 fold-out woodcut plate with ‘perpetual wheel’ identifying fertile seasons, decorated initials and headpieces. T-p dusty with scattered light damp spots, slight age browning, small marginal oil splashes to one gathering, repair to blank lower outer corner of 5 ll. and small section of fold-out plate at gutter. A good copy in contemporary limp vellum, traces of ties, library stamp of Rothamsted Experimental Station to front pastedown, illegible early inscription to lower blank margin of t-p, the odd annotation.

A good copy of the FIRST EDITION of the first Castilian translation of this extremely popular agricultural manual. Miguel Augustín (or Miquel Agustí, 1560?-1630) was prior of the order of St John of Jerusalem in Perpignan and a renowned agronomist. Originally written in Catalan, the ‘Libro de los secretos’—informally known as ‘El llibre del prior’ or ‘El prior’—was first published in Barcelona in 1617; in 1625, it was first translated into Castilian and published in Zaragoza, with the addition of a fifth book and an agricultural dictionary in Castilian, Catalan, Latin, Portuguese, Italian and French. The work blends the structure of the successful C16 genre of ‘books of secrets’—which provided information and recipes for herbal medicine and the combination of everyday substances useful for domestic management—with the content of classical ‘De re rustica’ florilegia featuring texts by Columella and Cato. Augustín provided thorough instruction to the ‘padres de familia’ engaged in agricultural activities, including ways of acquiring the necessary knowledge of seasons, medical herbs, weather warnings, agricultural skills and lore, and the proper behaviour to be held in public places and in the running of the country house. The fine woodcuts illustrated techniques for the division of the land into lots with a crosier (‘Baculo de Geometria’), distillation and wall construction, as well as figures of farming animals with lines pointing to body parts most prone to illnesses, and a superbly drawn beekeeper’s hive with bees buzzing around. The remarkably well-preserved fold-out plate provided the user with a ‘perpetual wheel’—with zodiacal signs and planets and blank sections to write down specific years of interest—for the identification of past and future fertile and infertile periods, beginning from 1625-26. An incredibly useful work so popular in the Iberian world as to make J.-C. Brunet confidently state in his C19 ‘Manuel du libraire’ that it was ‘still consulted today by Catalan farmers’ (I, 557).

Founded in 1843, Rothamsted Experimental Station is one of the oldest institutions for agricultural research in the world.

Only Columbia and NYPL copies recorded in the US.

USTC 5004923; Palau 4123; Wilkinson 20163; Brunet I, 557 and Graesse I, 46 cite the 1626 and 1617 eds. respectively. Not in Ferguson, Simon, Bitting or Oberlé.

L2974b

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