THE LICHACEV – DANILOV COPY
OCTOECHOS, tones 1-4.
Moscow, Pečatnyj dvor, 1618.
Folio, 476 ff. 23 ll./p., 10 ll. Old Cyrillic type in black, with red for titles, initials, running titles, rubrics and marginalia. 14 headpieces from 7 blocks; decorative initial Б on f.474. Zernova gives the foliation as 1–227, 224, 230–443, 445–477, . In this copy the foliation on the five leaves following f.227 has been corrected by hand, the printed sequence beginning again on f.234 (which is actually the 233rd leaf). In addition, the number of f.73 has been corrected by hand (from 75), and there are further corrections on ff.245–250 (it is no longer possible to see what was originally printed). First leaf mounted, some marginal repairs, not affecting the text. Wax-spotting throughout, dust and finger soiling, generally good. In contemporary calf, sewn on four cords, over wooden boards, blind tooled on the upper cover with large central medallion between four cornerpieces, all within a border of fillets and a small repeating motif, and on the lower cover with nine vertical rows of the same small motif between bands at the top and bottom of lozenges with a different small motif, one clasp renewed to match, rebacked, spine remounted, edges blue.
Inscription on f.2: сиꙗ кн҃га данилова мнⷭ҇трѧ, “This book belongs to the Danilov Monastery”. Inscription on ff.3–19: Лѣта ҂зр҃кз авгꙋстъ єі дн҃ь в переславль в залѣскои вданиловъ мнⷭ҇трь живоначалныѧ трⷪ҇ца вхрамъ далъ вкладꙋ коньстѧⷩтинъ іваноⷡ сн҃ъ лихачевъ книги гл҃емыѧ охтаи на осмь гласовъ печаⷮ московъска, “On 15th August 7127  Konstjantin son of Ivan Lichačev gave these books, the Octoechos, in the eight tones, Moscow printing, to the Danilov Monastery of the Holy Trinity, to the church, in Pereslavl’ Zalesskij.”
The Octoechos in Church Slavonic contains the variable portions of the services for each day of the week, according to the eight tones (ἤχοι): the services for the week beginning on the Sunday after Easter are conducted in the First Tone, the next week in the Second, and so on, and the cycle is repeated for the rest of the year. Since this eight-weekly cycle is combined with the yearly cycles of fixed and movable feasts, the material from the Octoechos may be replaced in part or even completely when a festival or other commemoration falls upon a particular day.
Like other aspects of Russian life, printing was seriously disrupted during the Time of Troubles, and for over four years no books were printed at all. After peace was restored, the first Romanov tsar, Michail Fedorovič, established the Moscow Printing House (Pečatnyj dvor), which was to have a virtual monopoly of printing in Russia until the eighteenth century. This is the fourth book to be printed there, “by Master Ianikita son of Fedor Fofanov, of Pskov”. The Octoechos was issued in two volumes, of which this is the first. The inscription indicates that both volumes were presented to the monastery.
The celebrated Danilov Monastery at Pereslavl’ Zalesskij was founded in the 13th century by the son of Alexander Nevsky and has often played a central role in Russian history. It is the resting place of many celebrated intellectuals including Gogol and Rubinstein. It is now a spiritual and administrative centre of the Russian church. The numerous Lichačev family of minor gentry were prominent in state service in the seventeenth century. Among their descendants was the famous collector and scholar Nikolaj Petrovič Lichačev (1862–1936).
Zernova 33. Karataev 244.