HELIODORUS, Emesenus

L’ Histoire Æthiopique de Heliodorus, traitant des l oyales et pudiques amours de Theagenes, thenalieu & Chariclea Æthiopienne.

Paris, de l’imprimerie d’Estienne Groulleau, 1547.

£3,750

FIRST EDITION thus. 4to. ff. (iv) 161,(i). A, A-2D. (without last blank 2D6).  Roman letter, some Italic. Charming woodcut on title, woodcut initials, ms love C1600, from the ‘Cabinet Satyrique ou recueil parfait des vers piquans & gaillards de ce temps.’ on verso of last, mss note “par Jaques Amyot natif de Melun” in a contemporary hand on t-p, ‘L Carré” in a slightly later hand beneath, ‘F Lenoble 1712’ on first leaf of text, ‘Moriee’ in another hand on fly with a charming dedication from the Count Chaffoy la Prat to a Countess on her seventh wedding anniversary, on the four hundred year anniversary of the printing of the work (1947) beneath, engraved armorial bookplate of the Duc de Vallombrosa on pastedown. A good copy, crisp and clean in good late C17th speckled calf, spine with raised bands richly gilt in compartments, red morocco label gilt, a.e.r. a bit worn at extremities.

Rare first edition of the first French translation of the best of all extant Greek novels and very probably the first European novel. The translation is by the great French hellenist and translator Jaques Amyot. It was first brought to light in modern times in a ms from the library of Matthias Corvinus, found at the sack of Buda (Ofen) in 1526, and first printed at Basel in 1534. The title derives from the fact that the story, developed in 10 books, starts and ends in Ethiopia. In Charicleia, the daughter of the queen of Ethiopia, born white due to the effect of the sight of a marble statue upon the queen during her pregnancy, is raised by priests in Delphi, eventually becoming a priestess of Apollo herself. There she meets and falls in love with a noble Thessalian, Theagenes. The young lovers, of course, endure many trials and have many adventures. They flee Delphi with the help of Calasiris, an Egyptian priest, and are captured and separated by pirates. Once again reunited in Memphis, they wend their way south, arriving in Meroe, the capital of Ethiopia, as prisoners of the Ethiopian army, then at war with Persia. At the last moment, just before Charicleia is about to be sacrificed to the gods, she is recognized as the true princess of Ethiopia and the two lovers are happily married. The rapid succession of events, the variety of the characters, the fascinating descriptions of natural scenary in Ethiopia, Egypt and Greece, the simplicity and elegance of the style, all give the ‘Aethiopica’ great charm. Heliodorus was an exceptional master of plot development and narrative style. Homer and Euripides were his favourite authors and Heliodorus was, in turn, admired by Byzantine critics and men of the Renaissance. Tasso modelled his heroine Clorinda, in his ‘Gerusalemme Liberata’, on Charicleia; Racine considered a drama on the same subject; and it formed the model of the ‘Persiles y Sigismunda’ of Cervantes. Heliodorus was born at Emesa in Syria. He lived towards the end of the fifth century of the Christian era, converted to Christianity and became Bishop of Tricca in Thessaly. The ‘Aethiopica’ was written in his early years, probably before his conversion.

Jacques Amyot (1513-1594), was tutor to the sons of Henry II (the future Charles IX and Henri III), later a professor at the University of Bourges, ‘Grand Aumonier de France’ and then Bishop of Auxerre, which he turned into an important centre for humanism. He translated the works of Plutarch on the recommendation of Francis I. His translations had considerable impact, not only for their rediscovery of antiquity and of Plutarch, but on the French language itself. He was not just an able translator but his goal was different to the writers of the Pleiade in that he was concerned with reaching a wide, non scholarly audience, and not with hellenistic turns of phrase. He brought French translation into a new era.

BM STC Fr. C16th. p. 217. Brunet III 88. Graesse III p. 235. Not in Adams.

L3236

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DIGGES, Thomas, DIGGES, Dudley

INSPIRING SHAKESPEARE?

Foure paradoxes, or politique discourses. 2 concerning militarie discipline,

London, By H. Lownes, for Clement Knight, 1604.

£2,500

FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. [iv], 111, [i]: pi², A-O. Roman letter, some Italic. Small woodcut printer’s device on title, floriated woodcut initials, grotesque woodcut head and tail-pieces, typographical ornaments. Light age yellowing, title dusty,  chipped at lower outer blank corner, a little dust soiling at margins of first few leaves, minor marginal dust soiling in places, the rare marginal stain. A good copy, with good margins, in modern three-quarter red calf, spine with raised bands, title gilt lettered, all edges yellow.

Rare first edition of this important work on the state of the English militia, probably a source for Shakespeares’ Coriolanus. “As Digges died in 1595 there was an interval of at least nine years between the writing of  ‘Paradoxes 1. and II.’ and their printing. These are filled with complaints of the dishonesty of officers. Foreign writers, too, were making similar accusations, notably Marcos de Isaba, who, in the ‘Cuerpo enfermo de la Milicia Espanola’, waxes very bitter on the subject. Both in English and foreign armies, officers, from the commander in chief to the captain of the band, where engaged in defrauding one another and the private soldiers. If the men clamoured for pay, license for pillage quieted them, or, in some cases, a still surer remedy was found; generals when deep in debt to any troops would send them on some desperate service, wherein most of them were sure to perish. Four pages of Paradoxes I are devoted to a comparison between a good and a bad paymaster; and much of Paradox II to another between modern discipline and the discipline of the Greeks and Romans. Digges maintains the former, ‘In spite of the late invention of gunpowder,’ to be vastly inferior to the latter, and he cites thirty points of difference between the two systems in support of his views. Indeed the English militia had become so inefficient as to make reform imperative. Captains, being paymasters of their own bands, made use of their position to pocket the mens’ pay; drill was neglected, and no dependence could be placed on soldiers, who, taken from the lowest class, thought nothing of running from the enemy. Smythe, though an opponent of Digges, corroborates these statements. Digges was a reformer, and certainly a good friend to the private soldier;.” Cockle.

“In 1604 a volume was published entitled ‘Four Paradoxes, or Politique Discourses’, containing two essays by Thomas Digges, and two by Dudley Digges, his son, and the stepson of Shakespeare’s testamentary overseer. One of Dudley’s essays is in praise of the soldiers profession. In the other he argues ‘That warre sometimes’ is ‘less hurtfull and more to be wisht in a well Governd state than peace’. War, he declares, is better than ‘luxurious idleness’… With this may be compared the dialogue on the advantages of war in Coriolanus IV. v.. Digges proceeds to discuss the use of war as a means of curing internal dissensions, his main example being the story of Coriolanus taken directly from North’s Plutarch, though with the insertion of one phrase from Livy. … we cannot be sure that Shakespeare had read ‘Foure Paradoxes’, though he might have done so out of neighbourly interest. In Coriolanus he uses the metaphor of breaking out in three places, though his use of it is not confined to this play. … Although, therefore, Shakespeare could have developed his conception of the play from Plutarch’s lives, Digges may well have contributed to the atmosphere of the play with his praise of the military hero, his claim that the ‘discommoditie of our long peace opprest by luxurie’ is ‘worse farre than warrre’, and his retelling of the Coriolanus story as an example of the way foreign wars can be used to cure sedition.” Kenneth Muir. ‘The Sources of Shakespeare’s Plays.’

ESTC S109705 STC 6872. Cockle 77.

L3469

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DAVIES, Edward

ONLY ONE COPY RECORDED IN US

Military directions, or The art of trayning: plainely demonstrating how euery good souldier ought to behaue himselfe in the warres.

London, printed by Edward Griffin, 1618,

£3,500

FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. [viii], 66, [ii]. A-I4, K2. K2 blank. Roman letter some Italic. Title within double line rule, text within box rule, woodcut initials and headpieces, typographical ornaments. Light age yellowing, title dusty with minor spots, the odd marginal mark, cut a little close at fore-edge just touching box rule on a few pages. A good, crisp copy in modern quarter calf over paper boards, title gilt in long on spine.

Exceptionally rare first edition of this work, a training manual, reprinted a year later as ‘The art of War, and Englands Traynings’; Estc records four copies only, three at Oxford, and one at the Huntington library. Most historical works refer to the second and third editions only, perhaps never having come across the first. The work is an eminently practical manual of drilling or training soldiers and officers, which is probably why it has survived in so few copies.

“Many of these war manuals repudiated the all-embracing blessedness of peace; ‘these halcyon days wherein Peace and Plenty lull us asleep in the lap of Securitie’, as one author [Davis] put it. It is arguable however, that they were justifying their own enterprises rather that expressing apprehensions about Jameses foreign policy. But when we come to Edward Davies the ‘Art of War’, published in 1619 [second edn.], the target becomes somewhat more definite. Promising to make ‘the many unexpert traine-men of this Kingdome’ ‘absolute Souldiers’, Davies readily confessed that he was facing an uphill struggle since the would be soldiers had ‘reaped a large harvest of peace under the most peacefull Monarch in Europe.’” Markku Peltonen. ‘Classical Humanism and Republicanism in English Political Thought, 1570-1640’

“In fact, veterans seemed to emerge from the woodwork to produce new instructional books for soldiers during the 1620s. Edward Davies, a contemporary and student of John Bingham’s methods, was one such figure. … Davies cited the contributions of the Honourable Artillery Company to the perfection of the militarie discipline in England. His connection with the company is murky though. He was indebted to its members and very aware of their activities but he is not listed as one of the company’s members in the Vellum Book. Davies describes himself as a Gentleman and alludes to his long years of military service in the Spanish Army, though he provided few details about that career. .. For Davies the success or failure of the army rested on the qualities of the common soldier, and for this reason he spent so much of the .. book explaining how officers might shape the men into competent soldiers. Captains were expected to train up men ‘of assured good qualities, [who] may be able to persever in each enterprise, beare out every brunt stoutly, and serve sufficiently’ The advice Davies offered was relatively straight forward, with officers and their men expected to show good judgement in adequately preparing themselves for war. Officers, as well as the men, were expected to be familiar with all the practices of soldering, with young officers learning to give orders and to obey them, as it was universally recognised that a good officer could never ‘governe’ others unless he first understood how to carry out orders. … By the 1620s, English military writers like Davies we are moving away from the reliance on classical illusions and concentrating instead on modern drill as exemplified by Maurice and his brother and successor, Frederick Henry.” David R. Lawrence. ‘The Complete Soldier: Military Books and Military Culture in Early Stuart England.’

An extremely rare work and most interesting practical work.

ESTC S109317. STC 6327. Cockle 92.

L3466

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[MARCELLINE, George].

Vox militis: foreshewing what perils are procured where the people of this, or any other kingdome liue without regard of marshall discipline

London, By B[ernard] A[lsop] for Thomas Archer, 1625.

£3,500

FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. [xiv], 18, 21-58 [i.e. 56]. A-I, complete except for final blanks I3+4. Roman letter, some Italic. Woodcut initials, typographic ornaments. Light age yellowing, title slightly dusty, some marginal spots. A good copy, clean, with good margins in C19th three quarter green morocco over combed marble paper boards, title gilt in long on spine.

A rare work, a call to arms against the Spanish and Holy Roman Empire in Europe, an adaption of a work by Barnabe Rich, first published in 1578, reworked to conform with contemporary events. Rich’s second book, ‘Allarme to England’ sought to rally support, moral and financial, for England’s soldiers. Here George Marcelline adapts the work particularly in relation to Count Ernst von Mansfeld attempts to raise money and men for the attempt to recover the Palatinate. The work is dedicated to Mansfield. In 1624 Mansfield paid three visits to London. James I, the father-in-law of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, was anxious to furnish his needs for the recovery of the Palatinate, but it was not until January 1625 that Mansfeld and his army of “raw and poor rascals” sailed from Dover to the Netherlands

“The death of James I in March 1625 and the accession of Charles I did little to change the fortunes of war for the English. Charles inherited his fathers chief minister, George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham, and both men were eager to lead the country in a war against Spain, particularly after the embarrassing collapse of the Spanish match and the return of Charles and Buckingham from Madrid in 1623. That return led to the ‘Blessed revolution’, the sea change in English foreign policy that saw a renewal of the old animosity between London and Madrid and the declaration of war against Spain in 1624. The decision to go to war with Spain was greeted with cheers by those who felt Jameses government would now put its full backing behind any military operations against the Spanish, thereby avoiding the debacles that marked the expeditions commanded by Vera and Mansfield. George Marcelline summed up the concerns of many in his Vox Militis (1625), a reprinting of Barnabe Rich’s Allarme to England (1578), that warned that the English lived ‘without regard of Militarie discipline’ and were being forced to stand and behold their friends in apparent danger ‘almost subverted by there enemies unjust persecution and yet with hold[ing] their helping hand and assistance’. Marceline, who dedicated his treatise to Mansfeld, wished to resurrect the reputation of the English soldier, which by this time had taken a beating. Yet his hopes, and those of the nation, were dashed once again when another foray to the continent in 1627, this time in support of the Danes, also faltered.” David R. Lawrence. The Complete Soldier: Military Books and Military Culture in Early Stuart England.

A very good copy of this rare work.

ESTC S115890. STC 20980. Cockle 105.

L3467

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NEADE, William

The Double-Armed man, by the New Invention: briefly shewing some famous Exploits atchieved by our Brittish Bowmen: with severall Portraitures

[London], [by Miles Flesher] for I. Grismand, at the signe of the Gun in Pauls Alley, 1625. [with]

Obiections against the vse of the bovv vvith the pike: and the answers thereunto.

[London : printed by W. Jones, ca. 1630]

£6,750

FIRST EDITION. Two works in one. 4to. 20 unnumbered leaves. A-E. 1 large folding sheet. Roman letter some Italic. Full page woodcut to title, 6 full-page woodcuts of bowmen and pikemen, with printed folding leaf at end, ‘Obiections against the vse of the Bow with the Pike: And the Answers thereunto” with large woodcut headpiece, (one tear restored with loss of letters, other unrestored without loss) historiated woodcut initials, woodcut headpieces and typographical ornaments, gilt leather armorial bookplate label of Henry Huth (1815-1878) and his son Alfred Henry Huth (1850-1910). Light age yellowing, rare very minor marginal spot, small hole restored in lower blank margin of last leaf. A fine copy, in handsome nineteenth-century, straight grained morocco, covers bordered with a gilt rule, title gilt in long on spine, edges and inner dentelles gilt, a.e.g.

A very good copy, with the rare folding sheet ‘Obiections against the vse of the bovv vvith the pike: and the answers thereunto’, of this beautifully illustrated and most interesting work. Neade’s ‘double-armed man’ carried a hybrid pike-cum-bow which he proposed would be a more efficient weapon than the pike on its own. “A year before the publication of this work, Neade presented the manuscript to Charles I, who commanded that the author should exhibit his new weapon in St James’s Park, in his presence; which was done. Neade,, petitioned the king to make the use of his new invention compulsory, and he and his son were shortly after authorised by proclamation to instruct ‘all those who are fit to exercise arms in the use of the weapon: especially the chiefe officers and all others of our Trayned-bands.’ The author commences with a short history of the occasions on which the bow has been successfully employed in battle, and attempts to refute the objections which had been made against it. His opinion of gunpowder, may be gathered from the following passage: ‘Amongst all which, Bartholdus Swart, the Franciscan Fryer, with his most devillish Invention of Gunpowder, is the most damnable, and from hell itself invented.’ He gives the range of an arrow at from 18 to 20 score yards, and says that six of them could be discharged in the time it took to load and fire one musket. The chief advantage of his combination of bow and Pike was that pikemen, by using their bows, would be able to take part in the preliminary actions of a battle, where before they have been lookers-on only. When the enemy had approached to within about six score yards, the bow was to be fastened to the pike and the ranks closed. If attacked by cavalry, the first five or six ranks were to charge pikes, whilst those in the rear were to continue discharging the arrows. The bow was fastened to the pike at the place where the latter is shouldered.” Cockle.

“Despite the earlier royal encouragement, Neade’s invention was not taken up, the bow having by this time been ousted from the battlefield by the musket. Neade, describing himself and his son as ‘instructors in archery to the king,’ complained to the king in 1637 that, despite several demonstrations of his weapon, he had exhausted his entire estate of £600 to no avail, and that through the bad example of the City of London, archery was now generally neglected. There was no official response to these pleas and, apart from some references to his book, nothing further is known of Neade or his son.” DNB.

A fine copy, well bound.

1) Cockle 106. ESTC S113129. STC 18416. 2) ESTC S113336. STC 18416.3. Not in Cockle.

L3440

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SMYTHE, Sir John

Instructions, obseruations, and orders mylitarie. Requisite for all chieftaines, captaines, and higher and lower men of charge, and officers..

London, By Richard Iohnes, 1595.

£3,750

4to. pp. [xxxii], 111, 124-220: pi1[=4[par.]2], [par.] – 3[par.], 4[par.]², (-4[par.]2), A², B-Y, 2A-2E. Roman letter, some Italic. Woodcut printer’s device on title, grotesque woodcut headpiece above, woodcut head-pieces and initials, ‘J. W. Baynton Grays Inn’ in C18th hand in lower blank margin of t-p., armorial bookplate Thomas Francis Fremantle, Baron Cottesloe, on pastedown, C19th autograph of Albert Way (1805–1874, English antiquary, and principal founder of the Royal Archaeological Institute) above. Light age yellowing, title a little dusty at margins, closed tear in lower edge of P2, rare minor mark or spot, upper margin a little short. A very good copy in C18th speckled calf, covers bordered with a gilt rule, edges gilt scrolled, rebacked to match.

A reissue, with expanded preliminaries and cancel title page, of ‘Certen instructions, observations and orders militarie’ (STC 22884), by the great contemporary authority on archery, the soldier and diplomat Sir John Smythe. Smythe (1533-1607) gained his military experience as a volunteer in France, the Low Countries and Hungary. Well-read and fluent in Spanish, he was appointed Elizabeth I’s special Ambassador to Spain on the 18 November 1576. After his ambassadorship, Smythe re-entered the political arena as a critic of the English involvement in the Eighty Years’ War in the Low Countries. In 1590 Smythe published ‘Certain Discourses’, a fervent plea for the retention of the longbow as the weapon of choice for the English soldier. Citing both modern and ancient sources, Smythe recalls great victories won by the bow and associates its use with true manliness and English military potency. The book initiated a controversy on the relative strengths of bow and handgun, but it also contained vehement criticisms of the “new disciplinated men of war” who commanded English forces in the Low Countries. “Leicester’s party now used their influence at court to obtain the suppression of the book, and having gained their end, they spread the report that its circulation was prohibited on account of its falsehood and foolishness, and that its author ‘was judged by her Majesty and her council’ to have been for some years in his dotage.” Cockle. Smythe spent the months that followed unsuccessfully petitioning Lord Treasurer Burghley (his occasional patron) to have this suppression reversed. ‘The agitation caused by his first work having subsided’ (Cockle) Smythe issued this second edition of the work, slightly expanded in its preliminaries. Cockle records that from the writings of Smythe and Patten “it is possible to gather a good general state of the army in England in the middle of the sixteenth century… So conservative is the author, that he would reject any man for an archer who should draw his bow with two fingers, after the new fashion, instead of with three, after the old. .. When one considers the imperfections of the fire arms of that age , one can understand how it was that old soldiers like Sir John should be prejudiced in favour of the bow, which had proved so effective in the past.”

Cockle 60. ESTC S117635. STC 22885

L3384/2

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TUKE, Thomas

A treatise against paintng [sic] and tincturing of men and women: against murther and poysoning: pride and ambition: adulterie and witchcraft. …

London, Printed by Tho. Creed, and Barn. Allsope, for Edward Merchant 1616.

£4,750

FIRST EDTION. 4to. pp. [xiv], 62: A(-A1,±A2), B-I, K(-K4). without initial and terminal blanks A1 and K4. “Title page is a cancel. Includes a reprint of: Tuke, Thomas. The picture of a picture: or, The character of a painted woman (STC 24312.7).” ESTC. Roman and Italic letter. Woodcut initials, head-pieces, typographical ornaments, engraved bookplate of Henry B. H. Beaufoy (1786-1851), vinegar manufacturer and philanthropist on pastedown. Light age yellowing, cut a little close at head, just trimming running headlines in places, shaving head of letter ‘A’ on title, title very fractionally dusty, small stain to fore edge of first few ll. A good copy in early C19th calf, covers bordered with a blind scroll, rebacked, corners restored, a.e.g.

First edition of this most interesting treatise on the use of makeup in men and women; Thomas Tuke’s ‘A discourse against painting and tincturing of men and women’ is a biblically inspired attack on cosmetics. Not only are painted women here compared with demons and barbarians, Tuke goes so far as to argue that anatomical alterations might generate biological difference and be passed on to a woman’s progeny. Thomas Tuke “royalist divine, was educated at Christ’s College, Cambridge, ..  He was ‘minister of God’s word’ at St. Giles’s-in-the-Fields, London, in 1616. On 19 July 1617 he was presented by James I to the vicarage of St. Olave Jewry, and he held that living till 16 March 1642–3, when he was sequestered, plundered, and imprisoned for his adherence to the royalist cause.” DNB

“In the classical tradition, attacks on make up and elaborate dressing, which first emerged among cynic philosophers including Diogenes, were more fully developed in the stoic philosophy of figures such as Epicetus and Seneca, and in the satirical writings of Perseus and Juvenal. This tradition combined with biblical denunciations of lavish appearance to produce a ‘cosmetic theology’ which under the influence of a number of early Christian authors and church fathers including Tertullian, Saint Cyprian, and Saint Ambrose, assumed anti-feminist values. … Thomas Tuke’s attack on painting and tincturing falls into the second category and while it purports to deal with excessive make up used by men and women, like the ‘Homily on Apparel’, it soon concentrates exclusively on and against women. The charges made .. are that women’s use of cosmetics disrupts secular and religious hierarchies. Most significantly, women are seen to threaten the cosmic and natural order, challenging the perfection of gods creation and claiming their own powers of self fashioning and creation. They are also accused of seeking to lead men astray, delivering them to sensual destruction, whilst at the same time trying to avoid the inevitability of ageing and death. These sorts of criticisms are voiced by characters in numerous Elizabethan and Jacobean plays and poems, sometimes as a part of a wider social attack made by malcontent figures but always, as noted above, with a misogynistic twist. Tuke’s treatise conforms to these moralistic patterns. He approvingly cites the views of many religious authorities, linking the church fathers to a number of Reformation and Calvinist theologians. Occasionally the focus of his attack switches from women to the decadence of catholicism, suggesting that cosmetic theology might form part of the bridge between Protestantism and the primitive church. At other times, the antifeminist and anti-Catholic positions coalesce, … and misogynistic imagery is used to validate the righteousness of English Protestantism.” Lloyd Davis. ‘Sexuality and Gender in the English Renaissance.’

Appended at the end of this work is Tuke’s ‘The picture of a picture: or, The character of a painted woman’ (STC 24312.7) first printed as a broadsheet a year earlier, which survives in one copy only, at the Bodleian. Tuke also deals briefly with adultery, or ‘whoredome’, and witchcraft, including reference to the case of Mistress Turner, executed in 1615 for her part in the poisoning of Thomas Overbury.

A very rare and fascinating work.

ESTC S120549. STC 24316. Hull, ‘Chaste, Silent and Obedient.’ 231. Not in Erdmann or Gay.

L3414

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WILLIAMS, Roger, Sir

THE HEBER-CHRISTIE MILLER COPY

The actions of the Lowe Countries.

London, Printed by Humfrey Lownes, for Mathew Lownes, 1618.

£5,500

FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. [xii], 133, [iii]: [par.], A², B-S. The first leaf is blank except for signature-mark “[fleuron]”; without last blank. Dedication dated 1618. [Variant: dedication dated 1617.ESTC]. Roman letter some Italic. Small woodcut printer’s device on title, floriated and historiated woodcut initials, grotesque woodcut head and tail-pieces, pencil inscription, ‘J. Arrowsmith, 30 Jan. 1794’, ‘Heber VIII b-b’ above also in pencil (Richard Heber, sale Sothebys part VIII, 29 Feb 1836, lot 3028, paper lot number on upper cover), pencil inscription ‘Gp M C-M, 11 Feb 1881’ at side, [Christie Miller, sold in his sale 30 June 1919, lot 885] ‘A.R.I’ in pencil below, with another pencil shelf mark below. Light age yellowing, minor browning at edges. A fine copy, stab bound in its original limp vellum, very slightly soiled.

A fine copy of the rare, posthumous, first edition of this most interesting and influential personal recollection of the wars in the Netherlands by Roger Williams whose 1590 treatise, A Briefe Discourse of Warre “is almost the only Renaissance military text written by an Englishman that is incontrovertibly authoritative and comparable in quality to the most advanced and influential Continental works on sixteenth-century warfare.” John X. Evans, ‘The Works of Sir Roger Williams’.

“This book had two editors, Hayward, and Sir Peter Manwood, who owned the manuscript and had formally lent it to Grimstone. The plan of it leads one to conclude that this is merely a fragment; ‘but whether the residue was never written, or whether it be perished, or whether it restesth in any other hand’ says Haywood, ‘I remain doubtful’. It came to him ‘in a ragged hand, and much maimed, both in sense and in phrase.’ Having restored it as nearly as he could to the style and meaning of the author, he and Manwood caused it to be published in the hope of drawing into light the residue, if there was any extant. Pp. 1-56 treats of the beginning of the troubles in the Netherlands, much of the information contained therein having been given to the author by William of Orange. Page 56 chronicles the arrival at Flushing in June, 1572, of Captain Thomas Morgan with 300 Englishman, among whom was Williams himself. This was the first band of British to serve the low countries against Spain. Previously, though there had been a considerable number of Englishman taking part in these wars, they were chiefly gentleman, serving independently. Morgan’s band was reinforced, in the autumn, by a regiment 1,500 strong, under the colonelcy of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who, however, returned with most of his men to England before the year is out. Another regiment was raised by Morgan in February, 1573; but, a year later, this, two, returned home, the officers having quarrelled with the Prince of Orange over their pay. Morgan’s regiment it was that established the use of the musket in England. Williams, ‘eager to see strange wars’, soon returned to the continent, where he joined Romero’s army, and fought on the Spanish side in the Naval Battle of Middleburg; and which point the narrative terminates. Williams excuses his defection on the grounds that his sovereign was not at that time at war with Spain; but later on he returned to the service of his first Masters, the States. The yielding up of  Sluys to Spain, in July, 1587, occasioned a great clamour in England, and Williams reaped his full share of blame, his reputation as a brave and experienced soldier enabling him, however, to withstand all attacks. In 1589, he took part in the expedition of Drake and Norris to Lisbon…. He died in 1595. Williams connection with Leicester, his advocacy of the new system of warfare and contempt for antiquated weapons, with other and private reasons, drew on him the wrath of Sir John Smythe, who, in a letter to Burleigh, complains that his book on weapons should be suppressed, … The following tribute to Williams occurs in Hayward’s preface to the later work: “Amongst those fewe who have written with knowlege, judgement and sincerity the Author of this Historie is worthy to be ranged:who doubtlesse was of endless industry; always in action, either with his sword, or with his penne.” Cockle.

A fine copy in its first limp vellum binding.

Cockle 93. ESTC S120160. STC 25731.

L3446

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WHITEHORNE, Peter

Certain waies for the orderyng of souldiers in battelray

London, [Printed by John Kingston for] Niclas Inglande, 1562.

£7,500

FIRST EDITION. 4to. ff. 48, [iv] leaves. A-N. Black letter, some Roman. Title within four piece woodcut border, white on black criblé initials, seven full page woodcuts of fortifications, numerous woodcut diagrams in text. Light age yellowing, the odd little marginal spot. A fine copy, crisp and clean, in handsome late C19th brown crushed morocco by Rivière and Son, spine with raised bands, title gilt lettered, turn ins gilt ruled, a.e.g.

The very rare and important first edition of Whitehorne’s seminal treatise on warfare, the first Englishman to write on the subject. This is the second part of STC 17164, Machiavelli’s The Arte of Warre translated by Whitehorne, with its own title; “Certain waies for the orderyng of souldiers in battelray” has separate title page (within woodcut border), foliation, and register.” ESTC. Cockle catalogues the two works separately. “Owing, perhaps to having been brought out merely as a supplement to the ‘Art of war,” Whitehorne’s book has almost been lost sight of as a separate work. It supplies information on the subjects not treated by Machiavelli, that is to say, on fortification, and the manner of making gunpowder, saltpetre, fireworks, etc. This information is collected chiefly from Italian writers; nevertheless Whitehorne must be allowed the honour of being the first Englishman to write on these subjects, though, as regards ‘fireworks’, it is Bourne to whom the credit is usually given. There is an interesting chapter on signalling, based on the actual systems of Aeneas, Tacitus and Polybius.” Cockle.

“The method many would-be reformers used to suggest improvements in training was the military book, which became increasingly popular in England during the 1570s and 1580s. The first influential military book of the Elizabethan period, Peter Whitehorne’s ‘Certain waies for the orderyng of souldiers in battelray’ was printed in 1560. (sic). The work, which accompanied Whitehorne’s translation of Machiavelli’s ‘Art of warre’ came from the press of the London printer John Kingston for Nicholas England. Like so many of the military authors, Whitehorne was a veteran, a former soldier in the army of Charles V, the King of Spain and the holy Roman Emperor and he served throughout the Mediterranean during Charles’s campaign against the Turks in the 1550s. ‘Certain waies for the orderyng of souldiers in battelray’ opened with a discussion of how to organise men into battle squares and also include the chapters on fortification, siegecraft, and artillery, the first in English to address the transformation of siege warfare that had been taking place on the Italian peninsula. The book, written with the express purpose of training the ranks to operate as a cohesive unit in the field, was also one of the first English military books to include text and diagrams depicting various infantry formations used on the continent. New additions of appeared in 1573 and 1588, each been printed with Machiavelli’s treaties on war. .. Whitehorne was the first Englishman to write on the subject of gunnery …” David R. Lawrence, The complete soldier Military Books and Military Culture in Early Stuart England.

Rare and important English military work.

Cockle 13. ESTC S111854. STC 17164.

L3445

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Mansfeld, Ernst, graf von

ONLY ONE COPY RECORDED IN US

Count Mansfields directions of vvarre. Giuen to all his officers and souldiers in generall.

London, Printed by Edw: Allde for Richard Whittaker, 1624

£3,500

FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. [viii], 55, [i];  A-H4. Roman letter, some Italic. Small woodcut of a soldier on title, woodcut initials and headpieces, typographical ornaments, early ms. shelf marks at head of title. Light age yellowing, title slightly soiled and creased, verso of last a little dusty, minor marginal marks. A good copy, with good margins, in modern speckled calf, title gilt in long on spine,

Extremely rare first and only edition of this practical manual by the mercenary General, Ernst Graf von Mansfeld, a work that gives tremendous insight into the training of troops for battle in the early C17th. Given directly to soldiers and captains for their training, the work has survived in very few copies. Estc records five copies only; one at the BL, two at Oxford, one at the Staatsbibliothek Berlin, and one copy only in the US, at Illinois. Ernst von Mansfeld, was a German military commander who, despite being a Catholic, fought for the Protestants during the early years of the Thirty Years’ War. Mansfeld often interrupted his campaigns with journeys made for the purpose of raising money, and in these diplomatic missions he showed considerable skill. In 1624 he paid three visits to London. James I, the father-in-law of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, was anxious to furnish him with men and money for the recovery of the Palatinate, but it was not until January 1625 that Mansfeld and his army of “raw and poor rascals” sailed from Dover to the Netherlands

“Mansfield landed n London in April 1624 and was soon courting James’ government and the City for their support in raising troops and money to complement the force of 7000 Germans he had brought with him to England. 12,000 English were quickly raised by the press but the men, drawn primarily from the Southeast, lacked discipline and training and could hardly be called soldiers. To overcome some of the problems of preparing the troops for war, a set of printed instructions ‘Count Mansfields Directions of Warrre’ were issued to the men as they departed England, though most of those conscripted were too ignorant or too weak to take their training to heart. The expedition departed for the Netherlands in late November 1624 and was expected to march from the Dutch ports to join with the French cavalry in operations against the Spanish and Imperial troops now controlling the Palatinate. … Training the militia over the course of the year was one thing, but teaching conscripts plucked from gaols and bridewells to handle weapons and carry out battlefield motions was a futile endeavour, a fact that a succession of Jacobean and Caroline officers were to discover. That said there were attempts to train these men using printed drill manuals, as evidenced in ‘Count Mansfields Directions of Warrre’, printed by Edward Allde and Richard Whitaker and distributed before Mansfeld’s expedition set off for the low countries in 1624. Directions of Warre had two parts; the first was a description of the various officers of the Regiment, both of foot and horse, while the second, titled the ‘Dignitie of Souldiers in Fyles,’ was an explanation of the methods and manner of drill as it was to be exercised by files of ten men. This twenty-six page section could not have been very helpful to a conscripted army that was ill trained, undisciplined, and poorly led, even if the intention was to have it well drilled by the time the troops reached Germany. The duties of each of the file members was spelled out, as were the three distances – open order, order, and close order. The work concluded with brief explanations of the countermarch and advancing on the enemy.” David R. Lawrence ‘The Complete Soldier: Military Books and Military Culture in Early Stuart England.’

A rare and most interesting work.

ESTC S120073. STC 17260. Cockle 102. ““Drawn up by W. G. with the consent of Count Mansfield, who revised the ‘Ordinances’ and gave his sanction for their publication.”

L3468

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