[DALGLIESH, George, CRAFORD, Thomas].

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AT EDINBURGH –

C17 STUDENT NOTES

Commentarius analyticus in duos libros posteriorum Aristotelis. [with] Metaphysicae […] compendium. [with] Annotamenta in Ethica Nicomachea. [with] Commentarius analyticus in libros naturalis auscultationis. [with] Commentarius analyticus in quatuor libros de caelo. [with] Commentarius in libros de ortu. [with] Epitome doctrinarum meteoris. [with] Commentarius in libros de anima. [and] De argumentatione.

Manuscript, on paper, Edinburgh, 1660-62.

£4,950

Small 4to. pp. (iv) 1-199, 100 [i.e., 200]-300 [i.e., 200], 301 [i.e., 201]-400 [i.e., 300], 401 [i.e., 301]-546 [i.e., 446] (xi), most of one leaf (pp.151-2) torn away, loose last leaf with doodles. Latin MS, in brown ink, chancery hand, approx. 40 lines per page, all single ink ruled, 6- to 9-line decorated initials, some hand-coloured, occasional diagrams (one pasted to 27 8 ), flourishing or decorative borders to few titles. First leaf partly detached, small tear from upper margin possibly affecting doodles, another to centre page just touching text, lower edge of first and last few ll. a little frayed, slight browning, edges dusty, scattered tiny worm holes at blank gutter of a few gatherings, occasionally just touching border, bifolium 10 5-6 loose, paper slip and cancelling text pages pasted to 21 1-2 partly concealing underlying text, 35-36 8 loosening. A remarkably well-preserved ms. in contemporary vellum, dust-soiled, upper hinge starting, extremities a bit rubbed. Extensive contemporary annotations to first leaf and loose paper slip, scribe’s name (Georgius Dalgliesh) or initials often repeated throughout, a few amusing doodles.

Fascinating ms. survival from a momentous period in the history of Scottish philosophical education. This notebook belonged to the philosophy student George Dalgliesh, and contains commentaries to Aristotle’s major works ‘transcribed’ by George and dictated by Thomas Craford (also Crawford or Crawfurd, fl. 1620-62), ‘magister’. Craford was professor of Mathematics and ‘Regent’ (tutor) of Philosophy at Edinburgh (Steven, ‘History’, 53-54; Dalzel, ‘History’, II, 336-39; ‘Catalogue’, 64). The author of ‘The History of the University of Edinburgh from 1580 to 1646’, a Latin grammar and a work on Buchanan’s ‘History’, all published posthumously, he died in 1662, the date of the last few sections of the present notebook.

These notes provide major insights into the work, knowledge and teaching of ‘Regents’ in ‘philosophy’, which at the time encompassed logic and metaphysics as well as natural science, physics, astronomy and anatomy. Of medieval origin, the rotating system of Regents ‘was a tutorial as distinguished from a Professorial system’: ‘while the Professor or Reader has his particular subject to teach to all pupils who may come to him, the rotating Regent or Tutor has his particular pupils to instruct in all the subjects of a prescribed curriculum’ (Grant, ‘Story’, 147). Despite the critique of educational reformers like Melville, who turned Regents into subject-specific Readers in Glasgow, Edinburgh and other colleges continued to follow this system until the early C18. At Edinburgh there were four Regents of Philosophy, who led their own class from day one to graduation.

The texts (or ‘dictates’) transcribed here replicate the Philosophy curriculum of the third (Bachelor) and fourth (Magistrand) years (Grant, ‘Story’, 149): the third, with Aristotle’s ‘Posterior Analytics’ and a description of human anatomy, and the fourth with his ‘De Celo’, ‘De Ortu’, ‘Ethica’ ‘Metereologica’ and ‘De Anima’. They reflect the Regent’s notes, which were dictated to students; sometimes they were also printed out as handouts. Dalgliesh even specified the dates in which he wrote specific sections, which provides fascinating insights into his teaching schedule. Craford’s classes were delivered at a momentous period in the history of philosophy, just as the break with the old traditions, revolving around Aristotle, was forced by the likes of Descartes, Boyle and the Cambridge Platonists (Emerson, ‘Change’, 123). The first two leaves summarise theses on ‘genus’, ‘differentia’ and ‘logica’. The Year Three part begins with a commentary on Aristotle’s ‘Posterior Analytics’, from the ‘Organon’, on syllogistic logic in relation to its subject matter, illustrated by definitions, solutions and responses. There follow similarly structured compendia of ‘Methaphysics’, ‘Nichomachean Ethics’ and ‘Naturalis auscultationis’, plus a compendium of human anatomy on topics including bones, the skull, cartilage, veins and arteries. Year Four features dictates on ‘De caelo’ (with a pasted ms. diagram of the heavens), ‘De ortu’, ‘De meteoris’ (with discussions of comets to the years 1660 and 1662) and ‘De anima’. The notebook concludes with a rhetorical appendix with sections on argumentation, propositions and types of syllogisms. The student, Dalgliesh, added numerous inked decorations and humorous doodles (faces, a peacock, a figure holding a gun, wearing spurs and a Puritan hat, glossed ‘Caesar’), and very large ‘FINIS’ at the end of several chapters, one preceded by the Latin for ‘and here we happily finish this chapter’.

W. Steven, The History of the High School of Edinburgh (Edinburgh, 1849); A. Dalzel, History of the University of Edinburgh (Edinburgh, 1862); A Catalogue of the Graduates in the Faculties of Arts, Divinity, and Law, Of the University of Edinburgh, Since Its Foundation (Edinburgh, 1858); A. Grant, The Story of the University of Edinburgh during its first three hundred years (Edinburgh, 1884); R.L. Emerson, ‘Scottish Cultural Change, 1660-1710’, in A Union for Empire, ed. J. Robertson (Cambridge, 1995), 121-44.

L3471

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ERASMUS. [with] PLUTARCH.

C16 ANNOTATIONS – ERASMUS CENSORED

ERASMUS. Apophthegmatum opus.

Paris, apud Ioannem Roigny, 1533. [with]

PLUTARCH. Regum & Imperatorum Apophthegmata.

[Paris], Iehan Petit, [after 1507].

£3,350

Small 4to. 2 works in 1, pp. (x), 496, (xxx); ff. 28, (i). Printer’s device to t-p of both, and last leaf of first, decorated initials. A few lower or outer margins uncut, I: first four ll. a little finger-soiled, slight mainly marginal foxing, II: intermittent browning, light marginal water stain to e 3-7 . Good copies in C19 tree sheep, marbled eps, raised bands, spine double gilt ruled, gilt-lettered morocco label, a.e.r., a little rubbed. I: c,1800 price (?) to ffep, ‘Vidania mal’ (?) on title in C16 hand, 6-line censorship note c.1600, and C19 ‘418’ to t-p, C16 marginalia to first 10 ll., occasional underlinings elsewhere, Letter from Brigitte Moreau of the BNF describing the Plutarch as ‘fort rare’ and known in only one another copy.

Interesting, annotated, very scarce Parisian editions of Erasmus’s and Plutarch’s collections of maxims—the second unrecorded in major bibliographies. Erasmus (1466-1536), the greatest humanist and philologist of the northern Renaissance, wrote some of the most important ‘mirrors for princes’ (‘Institutio principis Christianis’, 1516) and educational works for the elites (‘Adagia’, 1500). Like the latter, ‘Apophthegmata’ was a collection of sayings gathered from Greek and Latin lives of great personalities including Plutarch, Suetonius and Xenophon, grouped according to the virtue they epitomise. First published in 1531, it is here in a new, revised and enlarged edition. This copy was also marked by a near contemporary censor, as shown by his note on the t-p, stating that ‘Erasmus’s works should be read with caution’ and expunged due to his ‘corruption’. Several passages (e.g., one called ‘Deus insepultus’) were highlighted by the censor, and one was erased with the gloss ‘vox Erasmi’ (‘the voice of Erasmus’). From the Index of 1564, Erasmus was included as an author permitted but in need of expurgation; however, this work and the similar ‘Adagia’ were never mentioned specifically or especially targeted (Pabel, 146). The C16 annotator of this copy glossed extensively the dedicatory epistle and the first sections on Agasicles and Agesilaus, kings of Sparta. He was especially interested in material derived from Plutarch’s ‘Apophthegmata Regum et Imperatorum’ (of kings and emperors) and ‘Apophthegmata Laconica’ (of Spartans), a very scarce Parisian edition of which, printed in 1507 by Jehan Petit, was bound together with Erasmus’s work by an early owner. Plutarch (46-120AD) was a Roman magistrate and ambassador, and one of the most influential authors in the Renaissance for his biographies of the lives of the emperors and great ancient personalities, and wise maxims derived from them. Each is contextualised within a short anecdote from the lives of personalities including Silla, Diogenes, Lycurgus and Periander. ‘Apophthegmata regum’, in the Latin translations by Francesco Filelfo and Raffaele Regio, and ‘Apophthegmata Laconica’, together with ‘Moralia’ in Greek, were Erasmus’s models.

I: No copies recorded in the US.
Moreau-Renouard 668; BM STC Fr., p.153. Not in Brunet.
II: No copies recorded in the US.
Not in BM STC Fr., Moreau-Renouard, Hoffmann, Pettigree or Brunet. H.M. Pabel, ‘Praise and Blame: Peter Canisius’s Ambivalent Assessment of Erasmus’, in The Reception of Erasmus in the Early Modern Period, ed. K. Enenkel (Leiden, 2013), 129-62.

L3415

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GAFURIUS, Franchinus.

MUSIC INCUNABULUM

Theorica musice.

Milan, Philippus de Mantegatiis, Cassanus, for Johannes Petrus de Lomatio, 15 Dec 1492.

£75,000

Small folio. 68 unnumbered ll., [*] 4 a 8 b-i 6 k 8 . Roman letter. Handsome woodcut t-p of musician at the organ, full-page woodcut divided into 4 scenes showing Iubal, Pythagoras and Phylolaus playing instruments, several full-page or smaller woodcut diagrams on notation and music theory. T-p and blank verso of last dusty, latter ink spotted, t-p and last two ll. strengthened at gutter, upper outer blank corner slightly holed, few small marginal worm holes to first and last few ll., very light oil stain to lower outer corner of large figurative woodcut, small water stain at lower gutter of last four ll. A very good, crisp copy, on thick paper, in a C14 (probably German) rubricated vellum gradual leaf over boards (C20), a bit dust-stained. C20 bookplate of Alfred Cortot and tiny monogram WH to front pastedown, Cortot’s small initials stamped to lower margin of t-p, the odd C16 annotation and contemporary to verso of final leaf.

A very good copy, of illustrious provenance, of this ground-breaking work for the history of printed music. This second edition was revised and more complete than that of 1480. The t-p displays one of the most famous early music woodcuts, one of the earliest depictions of the organ; the four woodcuts of Pythagoras are ‘the first to portray him as a musician’ (‘History’, 76). Franchinus Gaffurius (Francesco Gaffori, 1451-1522) was an Italian music scholar and composer. A Benedictine monk and priest, he became ‘maestro di cappella’ in the Duomo at Milan in 1484, which hosted one of the most renowned choirs in Europe, patronised by the Sforza family. In addition to writing church compositions for his choir, he also published on the theory and practice of music, and the harmony of instruments. ‘Theoria’ begins with a general section on the benefits of music and the difference between celestial, human and instrumental music. From the second part onwards it is solely devoted to musical mathematics, as at the time music was correctly considered closely related to mathematics and geometry. Gaffori was heavily inspired by the ancient Greek tradition, by which all music intervals are established around set ratios—a system illustrated with woodcut diagrams of proportions. Using the ratios of Pythagoras (himself portrayed in four handsome woodcuts) as well as Greek notation (diapason, diapentes, etc.) as a starting point, Gafurius discusses consonances—with long analyses on the mathematical proportions, their definition, types (including the ‘superparticulares’, containing fractions)—tones and semitones, the invention and disposition of sounds along strings, intervals and the application of syllables to notation. The staffs with letters and notation reproduced at the end were produced with wood blocks, ‘so cut that the lines of the staff and the shapes of the notes stood out in relief, […] locked in the form with the letterpress, and the whole page was easily printed in one impression’ (Kinkeldey, ‘Music’, 100-1).

From the library of Alfred Cortot (1877-1962), famous Franco-Swiss pianist and conductor, especially praised for his interpretations of musical classics of the Romantic era.

Goff G6; Sander 2982; Kristeller 161; BMC VI 785; GW 10437; ISTC ig00006000. D.E. Smith, History of Mathematics (New York, 1958); O. Kinkeldey, ‘Music and Music Printing in Incunabula’, PBSA 26 (1932), 89-118.

K182

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POSTEL, Guillaume.

THE ROXBURGHE COPY

Absconditorum a constitutione mundi Clauis.

[n.p., n.p., c.1547].

£4,500

FIRST EDITION. 16mo. 52 unnumbered ff. Italic letter, occasional Roman. Light browning to first, slightly toned in places. A good copy in C18 crimson morocco, marbled endpapers, bordered with gilt floral roll, gilt armorial centrepiece of John Ker, 3 rd Duke of Roxburghe to covers, spine gilt to a design of fleurons and Greek fillets, all edges gilt and gauffered, corners, head and foot of spine a bit rubbed, ink splashes to covers and spine. ‘CP’ to verso of ffep, occasional early underlining.

Handsomely bound copy of illustrious provenance, of the rare first edition of this important work on religious mysticism. Formerly in the library of the great bibliophile and collector, John Ker, 3rd Duke of Roxburghe, whose remarkable library was sold in 1812. ‘The sale […] was a most sensational affair and the total of £23,342 was an extraordinary one at the time […] The Roxburghe Club was inaugurated in commemoration […]’ (de Ricci). He owned at least another two editions of this text, the 1552 and 1555. The library was known to include important and scarce books on magic and mysticism; Gilbert Norrell, a key figure in the C19 Revival of English Magic, acquired several books at the sale. The compiler of the catalogue wrote: ‘there is one class of books […], among which there are some very rare ones, that were not purchased by the late Possessor [the 3 rd Duke]. They were collected early in the late century, when free-thinking was much the fashion. William Postel, Giordano Bruno, or Benedict Spinosa, could be no favourites with the late Proprietor, who only valued philosophical writers, in proportion as they improved the morals of mankind’ (‘Catalogue’, I, 16-17). Guillaume Postel (1510-81), scholar, cosmographer, cartographer and diplomat, had a remarkable knowledge of classical languages as well as Arabic, Syriac and Hebrew. He also provided some of the earliest translations of the Hebrew ‘Zohar’ and ‘Bahir’. In the mid-1540s, in Venice, he became the confessor of Mother Zuana, a mystic from the populace allegedly conversant in ancient religious mysteries, who greatly influenced his views towards millenarianism; for these heretical opinions he was expelled from the city, and later condemned by the Inquisition and imprisoned in Rome. Composed during this prolific period of mystical conversations with the ‘Mater mundi’, ‘Clavis’ presents the ‘key’ (David’s ‘Psalms’) to the ‘hidden structures of the world since Creation’, theorising the spiritual restitution of the universe, with Postel—the first spiritual son of the ‘Mater mundi’—as mediator. Through Christian-Platonic doctrines, and the influence of the Kabbalah, he mentions the four ages of the world, in the last of which all religions (Christian, Muslim,
Hindu and Hebrew) will be universally united, and all shall return to speak the original, Adamitic language of the first age. ‘The idea of a universe unified under a single language, religion and government would remain the leitmotif of Postel’s work throughout his philosophical career’ (Giubilini, 370).

Only Kansas copy recorded in the US.
Caillet III, 8887 (1646 ed.). Not in BM STC Ger., Brunet or Graesse. A catalogue of the library of…John duke of Roxburghe (1812); R. Giubilini, ‘Nicholas Cusanus and Guillaume Postel on Learning’, in Nicholas of Cusa and the Making of the Early Modern World, ed. S. Burton et al. (Leiden, 2019), 367-82; W. Schmidt-Biggermann, Geschichte der christlichen Kabbala (Stuttgart, 2012); M.L. Kuntz, Guillaume Postel (1981).

L3645

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ASTOLFI, Giovanni Felice.

RARE AMERICANUM AND JAPONICUM

Historia universale delle imagini miracolose della Gran Madre di Dio riverite in tutte le parti del Mondo.

Venice, Fratelli Sessa, 1623.

£2,250

FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. (xviii) 877 [i.e., 887] (i). Roman letter, little Italic. T-p with engraved architectural border of angels playing trumpets, female figures, putti and a vignette of the Virgin. T-p torn and repaired to blank verso without loss. Slight toning in places, light water stain and little worm trail to lower margin (repaired on a few ll.), 12 ll. in KK-LL oxidised but clearly legible, small tear from lower blank margin of T 2 , minor marginal spotting, marginal ink burn to 3O 5 affecting a letter of side note. A perfectly acceptable copy in vellum c.1900, yapp edges, C17 casemark to t-p and a handful of contemporary marginalia.

A very rare, fascinating work on worldwide popular cults of the Virgin Mary—one of the earliest systematic works on the subject—an Americanum and Japonicum unrecorded in major bibliographies. Felice Astolfi (f. 1603), of whom little is known, was the author of an important historical work (‘Dell’officina storica’) and of several on miracles, a very popular subject in Counter-Reformation print. ‘Historia universale’ explores miracles and the popular cult of the Virgin Mary in the Old and New World, and in the Orient, through hundreds of fascinating anecdotes painstakingly drawn from Jesuit letters, and geographical and travel accounts like Botero’s. The variable collation of the preliminaries reflects the troubled history of its printing in the Autumn of 1623; the present is an early issue, with a blank where later issues display an additional dedication or a shorter gathering. ‘Although [it] built on a long medieval tradition of devotional literature, the miracle stories took on
new significance in the context of the early modern religious debates about the immanence of God. Astolfi addressed one of the major theological concepts debated in the early modern period: what is the proper role and function of miracles?’ (D’Andrea, ‘Miracles’). His narrative is especially concerned with the intercessory power of Marian images and their cult, and the immanence of God in physical objects. It begins with a life of Mary followed by a list of the relics (her body and clothing), with details of those preserved in Venetian churches. The first nine parts discuss the foundation of the earliest Marian churches and monasteries, accounts of miracles, the power of sacred images, iconoclasm, the miracles and local cult of specific images. From part 10 onwards are approx. 40 pages of accounts devoted to the wider world: Africa, where the Virgin makes Christian slaves escape the Moors’ prison, miracles in Manomotapa, Ethiopia and Angola, Christian fights by land and sea against the Moors; India, where a man’s rosary saves his sick, unchristened son, a bloody cross appears over the unburied body of a converted native, Monaian castle is reconquered after a procession, and Our Lady of Bengala is worshipped; the Caribbean, with a vessel haunted by demons at sea and saved by the Madonna of Guadalupe; Japan, with miracles during earthquakes, the miraculous healing of the sick in Bungo, the cult of Our Lady of Japan and Our Lady of Chitaoca, the burning of the Bonzi’s idols, the Marian cult encouraged by the Queen of Tango, devotion in the city of Amangucci, exorcisms, four crosses appearing on a tree; Brazil, with the foundation of the church of Nostra Signora dell’Aiuto, the conversion of a cannibal, the destruction of relics at the hand of Protestant colonists; Mexico, with praise for the natives’ treatment of the sick and management of hospitals, a Marian apparition to the sick, the Virgin’s feeding a sick woman; Peru, with the Marian cult in the mines of Potosi and a miracle against a demon pretending to offer help to miners, the care of the sick, the apparition of the Virgin to a dying native, the sad fate of a girl lying in confession, a healing prayer taught to a native; and China, with apparitions of the Virgin in the sky. Very scarce, fascinating and unusual.

Only one copy of this first ed. recorded in US (California State), and only 3 overall.
Not in Cordier, Church, Sabin, JFB or Alden (paper or online). BL STC C17, p.54 (1624 ed.). D. D’Andrea, ‘Miracles: An Inconvenient Truth’, in A Linking of Heaven and Earth, ed. E. Michelson et al. (2012).

L3457

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FABER, Johannes, ORSINI, Fulvio. [with] CAMERARIUS, Johann Rudolph. [with] PIGNORIA, Lorenzo.

ILLUSTRATED EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES

FABER, Johannes, ORSINI, Fulvio. In imagines illustrium ex Fulvii Ursini bibliotheca.

Antwerp, ex Officina Plantiniana, 1606. [with]

CAMERARIUS, Johann Rudolph. Horarvm natalivm centvria I. et II.

Frankfurt, Sumptibus Egenolphi Emmelii, 1610. [and]

PIGNORIA, Lorenzo. Characteres Aegyptii.

Frankfurt, Typis Matthiae Beckeri, impensis […] Theodori de Bry, 1608.

£1,850

4to. 3 works in 1 vol. pp. (viii) 88 (viii), last blank; 134 unnumbered ll., )(⁴ A-Z⁴ 2A-2I⁴ 2K²; pp. (viii) 43 (i), 1 plate, (viii), 5 plates, 5 folding plates. Roman letter, little Italic or Greek. I: engraved printer’s device to t-p, large woodcut device to verso of last leaf; II: small woodcut printer’s device to t-p, 200 half-page horoscope diagrams; III: engraved printer’s device to t-p, small text woodcuts and engravings and 5 full-page engraved plates with ancient seals and figures, 5 engraved folding plates with portions of the Mensa Isiaca; woodcut initials and ornaments. I: slight browning, t-p a little dusty, light water stain to outer blank margin of first two gatherings, light damp stain to last three leaves; II: somewhat oxidised (poor paper) and a bit waterstained; III: preliminary gathering loose, minor toning, light water stain to lower outer blank corner of K-M 4 touching first plate. Very acceptable copies in contemporary vellum, traces of ties, titles inked to spine, illegible private stamp to ffep, purchase note by Du Bouchet 1622 to third t-p, leaf with extensive C18 annotations in Latin and French glued to rear pastedown.

Three fascinating works on Egyptian and classical antiquities, and horoscopes. The most enticing and handsomely illustrated is the third, ‘Characteres Aegyptii’, by the Paduan antiquary and collector Lorenzo Pignoria (1571-1631). It is the second edition, after the first of 1605, of a study of the ‘Mensa Isiaca’—an elaborately decorated tablet of bronze, enamel and silver acquired by Cardinal Bembo after the sack of Rome of 1527 and later by the Gonzaga in Mantua. Though now believed to be of 1 st -century Roman, not Egyptian, origin, it soon began to inspire the study of the hieroglyphs and ancient Egyptian cults; Valeriano too mentioned it in his ‘Hieroglyphica’ and Athanasius Kircher would write on it in 1652. Pignoria’s work, the first scholarly study, ‘has been considered by subsequent scholars as the most valuable, both for the author’s purpose [not to interpret the tablet allegorically but using ancient sources] and for its historical information’ (Leospo, ‘Mensa Isiaca’, 2). The sources include Greek epigraphic inscriptions, ancient amulets and seals, many beautifully illustrated; portions of the tablet are also superbly reproduced in the final folding tables. Copies are recorded (and were probably bound) with a variable number of plates, from 5 up to 16. With 10, this copy collates as Stanford and Oxford. Pignoria was ‘willing to hazard an interpretation of the table’s symbols, but his identifications of individual figures were explicitly tentative, and he did not attempt to explain how they related to one another semantically’ (Stolzenberg, ‘Oegyptian’, 46). The second work is the second, enlarged edition of the German physician Johann Rudolph Camerarius’s (b.1588) attack against false astrologers. It illustrates the principles of the ‘true science’ of astrology through 200 horoscope diagrams identifying the celestial birth coordinates of (mainly German) royal, aristocratic and political figures as well as unknown people who had been his patients and even his own family members. Interesting is the case of two twins who died shortly after birth, in 1606, due to epilepsy. Originally published in 1598, the first is a catalogue of the superb collection of 151 antiquities amassed by the Roman antiquary and linguist Fulvio Orsini (1529-1600). This edition was often accompanied by, (though not here), a second work with 151 plates by Théodore Galle portraying items from the collection.

I: BL STC Dutch C17 G8; Brunet V, 1019 (ed. with plates only); Lipperheide II, 147 (mentioned).
II: Virginia and Oklahoma copies only recorded in the US.
BL STC Ger. C17 C156; Houzeau-Lancaster 5047 (mentioned); Cantamessa 1355 (1607 ed.); Wellcome I, 1230 (1607 ed.).
III: Brunet, IV, 652; BL STC Ger. C17 P659. Not in Lipperheide. E. Leospo, La Mensa Isiaca di Torino (Leiden, 1978); D. Stolzenberg, Egyptian Oedipus (Chicago, 2013).

L2601

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MAGINI, Giovanni Antonio.

Ephemerides Coelestium Motuum. [with] Supplementum ephemeridum.

Venice, apud haeredem Damiani Zenarii, 1616 1614.

£3,250

FIRST EDITION of second. Small 4to. 2 works in 1, separate t-ps, ff. (vi) 131 (i), 28, 149 (i), 152; (viii) 311. Roman letter, with Italic. Woodcut printer’s device to t-ps and verso of last, numerical tables and astronomical diagrams, 18 woodcuts with phases of Sun and Moon, woodcut initials and ornaments. T-p and verso of last a little dusty, a couple of ink splashes, minor repair to lower blank margin of first t-p and following four ll., worm trails to lower and occasionally outer blank margin of several gatherings of first work and light water stain to lower margin. Good copies in polished English calf, later eps, double blind ruled, edges gilt, raised bands, extremities and spine a little rubbed, early annotations to the errata and a few ll. of second.

Uncommon important ephemerides. Giovanni Antonio Magini (1555-1617) was an Italian mathematician, astronomer and cartographer. A supporter of the geocentric system, in 1588 he was preferred to Galileo Galilei as professor of mathematics at Bologna. His copious production includes works on quadrants, commentaries on Ptolemy, Regiomontanus and Viètes, and an atlas of Italy. In the 1580s, he began to publish ‘Ephemerides’—numerical tables providing the trajectories and positions of celestial bodies at regular intervals, over the course of several years. He kept updating his calculations and they were reprinted seven times. The first, spanning the years 1611-30, was first published in 1612. The tables were created from the ‘Tabulae Prutenicae’ first published by the astronomer Erasmus Reinhold in 1551, calculated from the position of Venice. This edition also includes a critique of J. Stadius’s calculations, an introduction to judicial astrology, and treatises on the use of ephemerides, annual planetary movements, and fixed stars. The ‘Supplementum’, here in its first edition, includes new tables based on Tycho Brahe’s observations, including eclipses, and revised calculations of the previous ‘Ephemerides’. For these, Magini relied on Kepler’s ‘Tabulae Rudolphinae’, making the ‘Supplementum’ ‘the first ephemerides calculated according to Kepler’s principles’ (Cantamessa 4747). A short epistolary exchange between him and Magini was also included in this work, and printed for the first time. He also followed a few Copernican theories using ‘the exentricities and different epicycles which Copernicus had substituted to those of Ptolemy’ (Delambre, ‘Histoire’, 508).

I: Only Oklahoma and Huntington copies recorded in the US.
Riccardi, Bib. matematica, I, 68; Houzeau-Lancaster 14859; Cantamessa 4748.
II: Four copies recorded in the US.
Riccardi, Bib. matematica, I, 70; Houzeau-Lancaster 15036; Cantamessa 4747. J. Delambre, Histoire de l’astronomie du moyen âge (Paris, 1819).

L3293

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POLIDORO, Valerio.

EXORCISM

Practica exorcistarum…ad daemones, & maleficia de Christifidelibus eiiciendum. [with] Dispersio daemonum.

Padua, apud Paulum Meietum, 1587.

£2,950

8vo. 2 parts in 1, separate t-ps. pp. (viii) 188 (i); 86 (iii). Roman letter, little Italic. T-ps in red and black within typographical border, woodcut initials and ornaments. First t-p dusty with slight stains, intermittent light browning, very minor foxing, C15 ms. used as spine lining just visible at gutter of first A 1 and second L 1 . A very good copy in contemporary vellum, missing ties, yapp edges.

A very good copy of this important manual for exorcists. Valerio Polidori (fl. late C16) was a conventual Franciscan and theologian, whose fame rests on this work, first published in 1582. In two parts: one on the expulsion, the other on the dispersion of demons. The first part discusses the necessary characteristics exorcists should have (strong faith, pure conscience, not greedy or vain), the ways in which demons attack human bodies, how to tell if something is being generated by a demon or if a demon has been expelled, the nature of demons, orations and prayers to be used, and what demons should be asked (e.g., name, cause for entering the body, the angels he fears). The second explains the nature of ‘maleficia’, natural remedies to disperse demons, and how to tell the difference between a normal sickness and the consequences of demonic possession. ‘The work is very good, clear, well-founded on doctrine and mostly based on Peter Lombard. […] Of the subjects he does not want to discuss at length he mentions the best authorities, and he provides sound instructions for both the exorcist and the exorcised’ (Franchini, ‘Bibliosofia’, 561). It was, however, listed among the prohibited books in the Index of 1744.

Durling 3701; Caillet III, 8805 (1582 and 1606 eds); Thorndike, V, pp. 556-7. F.G. Franchini, Bibliosofia e memorie letterarie di scrittori francescani conventuali (Modena, 1693).

L3408

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PAULINUS, Laurentius.

SCARCE SWEDISH IMPRINT

Historiae Arctoae libri tres.

Strengnes, Typis & impensis authoris; excudebat Johannes L. Barkenius, [1636].

£2,650

FIRST EDITION. Small 4to. pp. (xx) 415 (xvii) 168 (xvi) (i 4 cancelled as usual). Roman letter, with Italic. T-p within woodcut architectural frame. T-p dusty and remargined to verso, not touching text, next torn and repaired without loss, a few old marginal repairs at beginning and end, slight yellowing, occasional minor marginal spotting, a few ll. a little dusty. A good
copy in C18 half vellum over marbled boards, a bit worn. C17 inscription Laur. Qvist [Laurentius/Lars Qvist] and couple of early casemarks to front pastedown, Swedish binder’s inscription ‘Carl Friedrich Borg bok bindaren’ 1735 to inner spine lining.

A good copy of the first edition of ‘the first extended, comprehensive history of Sweden’ (‘Nordisk’, 906) and ‘the most ambitious piece of [Swedish] historiography’ of the C17 (Kalevich, ‘Compilation’, 6). Laurentius Paulinus Gothus (1565-1646) was Archbishop of Strengnes, Sweden. In 1622, he promoted the establishment of the first printing press of the town, with the financial assistance of King Gustavus Adolphus. The present is one of the most famous outputs of this provincial press (Cotton, ‘Gazetteer’, 272). ‘Historia’ provides an account spanning the Creation, as most C16 national histories, to the death of Gustavus Adolphus in 1632; it also includes a geographical survey of Sweden and a summary of the most important historical events. Whilst Paulinus did not engage in fresh archival research, he produced a major compilation of all available sources, especially Olaus Magnus. The account of early history includes astronomical observations and criticism of astrological forecasts, as well as the first migrations to Sweden after the Flood. It is followed by a description of Swedish territories, including Lapland, and of Finland, Norway, Livonia, Estonia, Lithuania, Denmark and even Muscovy; it then focuses on Sweden, discussing its politics (to Gustavus Adolphus), religion (especially the extirpation of paganism), customs and laws. The second section follows the chronology of Swedish kings from before the Flood to 1492. The catalogue of the ‘Bibliotheca Heberiana’ (1835, n.3320) states that copy was ‘very scarce, with the suppressed leaves’, pointing the reader to ‘Lord Strangford’s note’ on the subject. Percy Smythe, 6th Viscount Strangford (1780-1820) was ambassador to Sweden in 1817-20. We have not been able to identify this note or discover anything about suppression; it may concern i 4 which is cancelled.

Minnesota, Illinois and Yale copies recorded in the US.
Graesse V, 172; Brunet IV, 444 (footnote); Estreicher, Bib. Polska, 217; Bib. Livoniae historica, 2020. H. Cotton, A Typographical Gazetteer (Oxford, 1831); Nordisk Familjebok (Stockholm, 1888); A. Vetushko-Kalevich, Compilation and Translation (Lund, 2019).

L3334

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RADZIWIŁŁ, Mikołaj.

NO COPIES IN US

Peregrinacya abo Pielgrzymowanie do Ziemie Swiętey.

Cracow, W Drukarniey Antoniego Wosinskiego, 1628.

£6,500

4to. pp. (viii) 356. Gothic letter. T-p and text within typographical border, large oval portrait of Mikołaj Radziwiłł to verso of t-p. Paper softened, light browning, t-p fore-edge and lower outer blank corner of last four ll. restored, small repair to lower portion of t-p, touching couple of lines of text, first couple of ll. somewhat dusty, holes to lower blank margin of F 1 and G 4 , marginal paper flaw to Z 2 , light water stain to outer blank margin of first and last few ll, lower egde of NN 2-3 uneven. A good copy in contemporary vellum, recased over modern boards, slightly splayed, small repair at head of spine, corners worn, old ink stain to lower cover. Stamps of Archivium Treterianum and H. Treter (C19), and Bibl. Treteriana (C18?), and inscriptions ‘Ta ksiazka jest E. Laibodzki dana mi ad W Jozefa Sczepanskiego 25 Apr 1816’ and ‘Kupilem z Jazdz [city of Jażdże?] 860 Hilary Treter’, all to t-p, C19 stamp of H. Treter to verso of last leaf.

The exceedingly rare Polish translation—with no copies recorded outside Poland—of the author’s journey to the Holy Land. Prince Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł (1549-1616) was a traveller, diplomat and member of a powerful aristocratic family in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1601, he achieved popularity with the publication of ‘Hierosolymitana peregrinatio’, an account, in Latin, of his travels to the Holy Land, Syria, Egypt, Italy, Greece, Crete and Cyprus in 1582-84. It was quickly published in German in 1603, and in Polish in 1607, based on the German edition. This copy was in the possession of the Treter family, purchased in 1860 by a descendant of Tomasz Treter (1547-1610), who first translated Radziwiłł’s ms., by then widely circulated, into Latin. The idea of publishing the account was promoted by the Jesuits, as part of the Counter-Reformation attempts to reignite pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These had subsided after the Ottoman conquest of Jerusalem and the Eastern Mediterranean, the more remote exploration routes, the commercial crisis between Venice and the Orient, and Reformed theologians’ criticism of pilgrimages (Longo, ‘Memorie’, 16). In his preface to the first Latin edition, Treter indeed presented Radziwiłł’s pilgrimage as a Catholic’s ‘heroic journey’, in the face of the Reformation (Noonan, ‘Road’, 187). Like its contemporary European counterparts, ‘Peregrinacya’ included itineraries and
logistic information for pilgrims, with unusual attention to ethnographic descriptions. It begins with the difficult organisation, e.g., the procurement of a passport, ‘without which one cannot go to Jerusalem’, from the Doge Nicola da Ponte in Venice, and a meeting with the Custodian of the Holy Land, Geremia da Brescia. It also reports the text of documents he needed to present to authorities along the way. The account continues with his journey to Greece and Cyprus via Dalmatia, thence to Cyprus, Jerusalem, Tripoli and Egypt. In addition to a long section on the customary holy places he visited in Jerusalem, he also mentions the situation of the Ottoman occupation in the Eastern Mediterranean. Most fascinating is the long third section, on Egypt, where he describes the ‘glory’ of Memphis and devotes three pages to the pyramids of Giza, with references to Pliny and the story of Rodopis, the prostitute who allegedly built the third pyramid with money earned through her profession. Scattered in the third part are also descriptions of Egyptian mummies, including a reference to the recent decree forbidding the trade in and export of mummies, which were used by European apothecaries for medicaments.

Only National Library of Poland copy recorded.

Estreicher, Bib. Polska, 184828; Brunet IV, 1087 (mentions first Polish ed. of 1617 [i.e., 1607] only). Not in Röricht, Bibliotheca Geographica Palaestinae. F.T. Noonan, The Road to Jerusalem (Philadelphia, 2007); P.G. Longo, Memorie di Gerusalemme (2010).

L3363

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