Traicté et dispute contre les équivoques, traduit du latin de R. P. F.

Paris, R. Baragnes et J. Villery, 1625


FIRST EDITION. 8vo. pp. (xl) 571 (iii) first and last blank. Roman and Italic letter. Small woodcut printer’s device on title, historiated woodcut initials, typographical and woodcut headpieces, small library stamp of the Jesuit college at Rouen in blank margin of title page, their later label on verso. General light browning. A good clean copy in contemporary limp vellum, remains of ties.

First edition in French of this interesting argument against the Jesuit doctrine of equivocation or mental reservation, published simultaneously with a Latin version. “Such orthodox English protestants as Thomas Morton or Henry Mason held religious views which were profoundly different from those of John Barnes, a Benedictine monk exiled in France. Yet all three adopted broadly the same position on equivocation. In essence, their case consisted of two propositions. Firstly mental reservation was lying, and lying was wrong. Secondly, it was a devious, hypocritical, and Machiavellian doctrine. … (Barnes) held that the Devil was the author of mental reservation, and asserted that all the arguments which had been cited in support of the practise worked equally well in favour of lying; indeed lying was preferable, for it had ancient precedent and was an activity recognised by canon law. Barnes had little time for liars. ‘You should not lie’ he said ‘even to save your life’. … Barnes claimed that the Jesuitical doctrine was Machiavellian. Like the florentine, proponents of Mental reservation allowed evil to be done in order that good might result. .. Barnes’ book was approved by the Sorbonne. In France, popular misgivings about mental reservation were ruthlessly exploited by Gallican opponents of the Jesuits.” Edmund Leites ‘Conscience and Casuistry in Early Modern Europe.’

“John Barnes was one of those Roman Catholics, who, following the Examples of Erasmus Cassander Wicelius, Father Paul and many others, made all their lifetime profession of the Catholic religion, though they observed a great many abuses in it, which they heartily wished to see reformed. He wrote a book against Mental reservations (Traicté et dispute contre les équivoques), which was not at all pleasing to the Jesuits, though he dedicated it to Pope Urban VIII. … Doubtless he desired to bring the two Churches as near one another as ever he could.” ‘The dictionary historical and critical of Mr. Peter Bayle,’ Barnes’ writings earned him many ennemies, especially amongst the Jesuits and his own order of the Benedictines.

“Wood relates that his writings ‘made him so much hated by those of his order that endeavours were made to seize upon him and make him an example.’ Barnes, perceiving the danger, fled to Paris, and there placed himself under the protection of the Spanish ambassador. In consequence, however, of the efforts made by Father Clement Reyner and his interest with Albert of Austria, Barnes was carried from Paris by force. … According to Wood he was conveyed from Flanders to Rome, where, by command of the pope, he was, as a contriver of new doctrine, thrust into a dungeon of the Inquisition. His mind giving way, he was removed to a lunatic asylum behind the church of St. Paul the Less, and he appears to have been confined there until his death, which occurred in August 1661.” DNB. A very good copy of this rare work, most interestingly from a Jesuit library, the Jesuit College at Rouen.

Shaaber. B 229. Not in BM STC fr. C16th, Brunet or Graesse.


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Nuovi avisi dell’Indie di Portogallo … terza parte.

Venice, Michele Tramezzino, 1562.


8vo, pp. [8], 316. Italic letter; large printer’s device on title, floriated initials; small traces of glue at foot of first three leaves, tiny marginal stain to outer upper corner of f. 27. A fine, wide-margined copy in late sixteenth-century limp vellum; yapp edges, early title inked on spine and later gilt on morocco label, pasted stubs from a dictionary or glossary.

First Italian edition of an epistolary account of the Jesuit missions from all over the early modern world, translated from Spanish. It concerns in particular the vast maritime domain of the Portuguese Empire, consisting of numerous strategical harbours on the coasts of Africa, South Asia and South America. This network was instrumental in controlling the trade of spices and precious metals, but offered also safe starting points for Catholic evangelisation. This collection of letters narrates travels to and fro and daily missionary life in Brazil, India, China, Japan and Ethiopia, providing details of the Jesuit activities, including mass conversions, as well as relevant information on local people, flora and fauna. Often, missives are sent to or from the St Paul’s College of Goa, which was established about 1542 by Francis Xavier as the educational and cultural centre of the Jesuit expansion in the East, and housed the first printing press in India from 1556. These letters were highly sought after in secular Europe, often providing the only reliable information available on the political, economic, commercial and social conditions of large and increasingly important part of the globe.

Not in Adams. BM STC It., 349; Alden, 562/16; Sabin, 5640; Borba de Moraes, I, 51; Cordier, Japonica, 47.



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ACOSTA, José de


De natura novi orbis … et de promulgatione Evangelii apud babaros.

Cologne, officina Birckmannica, 1596.


8vo., pp. (16), 581, (3). Roman letter, little italic. Jesuit device on title; slightly yellowed, occasional oil mark in margins; tiny burn mark affecting one letter on p. 1 and 373; few unprinted words completed in contemporary manuscript and later pencil at bottom of pp. 126 and 274. A good copy, in an early seventeenth-century English brown calf, blind-tooled plain style, probably Cambridge, multiple ruled borders with saw tooth edge, double fillet, central undecorated frame with fleurons at corners; a bit scratched and worn; rebacked, spine part remounted, all edges red; pastedowns from an early Roman letter edition of the King James Bible (2nd Maccabees, III, 1-21 and III, 25-40; IV, 1-2).

Third unaugmented edition of these pioneering treatises on the geography, anthropology and evangelisation of South America, previously published in Salamanca in 1588/ 1589 and 1595. José de Acosta (1540 – 1600) was among the first Jesuit missionaries to embark for the Spanish New World. He spent much of his life in Peru. The main settlement of the order was at that time in the village of Juli, on Lake Titicaca. Here, a college was set up to study the languages of the natives, while the newly-funded Jesuit printing press issued the first printed book of the Americas in 1577. Later, Acosta moved to Lima and taught theology at the university.

In the Third Council of Lima (1582 – 1583) reorganising the American church, Acosta took a very active part and became its official historian. Following an adventurous journey through Mexico, in 1587 he head back to Spain, where he was appointed head of the Jesuit college in Valladolid and later Salamanca. A prolific writer, he is mostly famous for his very successful Historia natural y moral de las Indias. This knowledgeable, realistic and detailed description of the New World was sought after and soon translated into Italian, French, German, Dutch and English. The Natura novi orbis opening this edition represents the early draft of the Historia. In it, Acosta provided the first account of altitude sickness, which affected him while crossing the Andes. He also divided the Amerindians into three categories, acknowledging the Incas and Aztecs as fairly advanced societies in the civilisation process.

The second part comprises a very innovative essay on evangelisation. Acosta struggles to demonstrate to his contemporaries that Amerindians were part of the original God’s plan for mankind and thus were not inferior creatures undeserved of being Christianised and saved. In grounding his argument, the idea that the first inhabitants of America migrated from the biblical world (specifically from Asia), played a crucial role. Indeed, he was the first writer to postulate the existence of a land bridge at the northern or southern extremities of the two continents, long before the discovery of the Bering Strait. In his missionary zeal, Acosta was much concerned with the preparation and morality of priests, who he encouraged to study the aboriginal languages as an essential part of their duties.

‘One of the earliest writers who have treated philosophically of America and its production.’ J. Sabin, A Dictionary of Books Related to America, I, p. 17.

BM STC Ger., p. 2; Adams, A 124; Brunet, I, 41; Graesse, I, 15; Leclerc, 4; Palau y Dulcet, I, 1979; Sabin, I, 120. Not in JFB nor in Alden.


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