ABI BAKR AL-ḤANAFI, YAHYA BIN

THE LAWS OF INHERITANCE

Kitāb Al-Farā’iḍ [Inheritance Laws in accordance with Islamic Fiqh]

[Near East, late sixteenth century]

£2,750

Arabic manuscript on paper with diagrams, 175 x 130 mm, two parts in one, 58 ff., pages unnumbered, single column, between 10 and 20 lines per page, black bookhand, text panel 155 x 105 mm, some words or letters highlighted in red, diagrams in red and black. A very good copy on soft, glossy paper, minor staining towards gutter, occasional smudging toward end of text, expanded marginal commentary in the same hand throughout the second juz’. Name of author in second juz’ of text.

Printed label with description to upper pastedown, original Makiya label attached to upper spine. Contemporary brown leather binding with envelope flap, re-backed, flap and spine replaced, front and back boards gently rubbed, upper board central mendorla blind tooled with palmette design, lower mendorla blind tooled with floral design, gold tooling to both mendorla outlines.

A commentary on Ḥanafi inheritance laws observed by some Sunni Muslims. Hanafi Islamic law is the school with the largest following. The popularity of Hanafi law is also attested by its vast geographical spread and its becoming the dominant system of rule for both the Mughal and Ottoman empires. In Islam, inheritance law, also known as mīrāth, is derived from the Qur’an and then expounded in further detail by generations of Muslim jurists.

Yaḥya al-Ḥanafi’s Kitāb Al-Farā’iḍ explores legislation such as whether the the grandfathers of deceased men ought to inherit in the stead of their father and the size of the portion of a widow’s inheritance (traditionally a quarter if she does not have children and an eighth if she does). This is an interesting elaboration of the traditional formula that all relatives with a legitimate blood relationship are entitled to inherit if there are no mitigating factors such as homicide or difference in religion. A similar, albeit earlier, commentary, dated 1192 AD and signed by Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Ḥawfī, with the same title is held in the Bodleian Library (MS. Marsh 378, ff.2-92).

Islamic inheritance laws played an important role in in the development of algebra as a discipline by medieval Muslim mathematicians in order to solve the equations required for more numerically difficult cases. Item number 134 from the Mohamed Makiya collection.

GAL I 384 [UAM. 217 (1) with corrig. Nicoll p. 573]

L2985

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AL-IMAM AL-ḌIĀ’ AL-DĪN ABU-‘AMRU IBN-‘AISĀ AL-MARAĪ, SHEIKH AL-AJLĀL

THE LAWS OF DIVORCE

Kitāb al- staqṣa’ li-madhāhib al-‘alm al-Fiqha’ [An Investigation of the Islamic Fiqh Doctrines]

[Damascus, 793 AH/1391 AD]

£7,850

Arabic manuscript on paper, 260 x 180 mm, part seven of twenty from a much larger collective work, complete in itself, 95 ff., modern page numbering, single column, 21 lines per page, tidy black naskh with chapter headings and key words highlighted in red, text panel 190 x 140 mm, modern inspection notes for sale in red on upper front pastedown and occasional marginal annotations. A very clean copy in excellent condition with minor soiling to fore edge and thumb marks, small early wormholes, recto of first folio repaired covering final words of opening colophon. Nineteenth century brown morocco inlaid paper binding; extremities worn.

Incipit states that the manuscript is dedicated to the shuru al-alaq (conditions of divorce). The two main types of divorce in Islam are repudiation (talaq) and mutual divorce (khul’) – the former is initiated by the husband whilst the latter by the wife. In Islam, certain criteria must be filled before a divorce can be permitted, such as attempts to reconcile and evidence that both parties have considered the matter for some time and are not over hasty in making this decision.

The parent work, and all its component parts, is extremely rare and seems to survive nowhere in its entirety. Three other parts of the same parent work as the present part are held in al-Azhar University Library, Cairo. Although little is known about the author, he is listed in Dar al-‘Ilm lil-Malayīn’s Bibliographical Dictionary, Al-A‘lām (vol. IV, p. 212).

As the cradle of Islam, Damascus is where the Umayyads – the second dynasty of hereditary rule after the death of the Prophet Muhammed, often remembered for their remarkable military prowess and patronage of many early Islamic monuments – set up the first Islamic caliphate. It remained a lively hub of intellectual activity beyond the late fourteenth century when this manuscript was composed. Michael Chamberlain writes in ‘Knowledge and Social Practice in Medieval Damascus 1190-1450’ (1994) about the distinctive scholarly rigour of medieval Syrian institutions for Islamic learning (madrasahs) where this manuscript was likely produced. 1391 AD was a particularly vital year for scholars of Islamic law with the important contemporary Hanafi jurist (chief-qāī) Abu’l Walīd Muammad b. Kamāl al-Dīn Muammad b. Muammad b. Mamūd b. al-Shina Zayn al-Dīn al-alabī captured by the first Mamluk sultan, Barquq, and sent to Cairo before being welcomed back to Syria upon his release.

From the library of a British collector since the 1970s.

GAL II 182

L2986

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AHMED IBN AHMED IBN ‘ABD AL-LATĪF AL SHARJI AL-ZUBAYDI, SHIHAB AL-DĪN

MAGIC SQUARES AND DIVINATION

Kitāb Al Fawayīd wa al-Ṣilāt Wa al-‘Awāyid [On Magic and Talismans]

[Sana’a, Yemen, AH 969/1562]

£26,500

Arabic manuscript on paper, 100 ff. of text, two free end papers, pages numbered, each with 25 lines of black naskh script, text panel 157 x 100 mm, titles and some words picked out in red, some phrases underlined in red, text within red frame, including numerous arithmetical tables and some diagrams, later notes to the end papers, colophon signed ‘Abd al-Raḥīm al-Zubaydi in Sana’a in modern Yemen in Shawwal AH 969 (June-July 1562 AD) and dated, repair without loss, at least three different hands of marginal annotations.

Contemporary, polished natural high quality morocco with central stamped medallion, an excellent copy with minor damp staining and marginal finger-soiling.

Kitāb Al Fawayīd wa al-ilāt Wa al-‘Awāyid is a treatise outlining the various principles of numerology in Islam where charts and numbers are used for divination or to bring barākā (blessings). Most of the illustrations in this manuscript are of the Islamic talismanic design known as wafq – ‘magic squares’ (see Maddison, F., and Savage-Smith E., ‘Science, Tools & Magic in the Khalili Collection of Islamic Art’, Oxford; Oxford University Press, 1997 or Savage-Smith, E., ‘Magic and divination in early Islam’, Aldershot; Ashgate Variorum, 2004). A magic square is arranged to produce a constant sum in all rows and columns and were most commonly depicted on amulets or manuscripts. The wafq is sometimes described as ‘recreational mathematics’ because of the sophisticated mathematical principles they illustrate. Jacques Sesiano in the article ‘Magic squares in Islamic Mathematics’ has argued that magic squares in Medieval Islam were developed from chess which was hugely popular in the Middle East. Sesiano has also observed how there are references to the use of magic squares in astrological calculations. Magic squares are, generally, magic by association (because of the carefully arranged sums), physical proximity and in their supposed capacity to foretell future outcomes.Rare.

From the collection of Adrienne Minassian; formerly at Brown University.

K136

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GALLE, Theodore; ORSINI, Fulvio; FABER, Johannes

Illustrium imagines ex antiquis marmoribus, nomismatibus, et gemmis expressae, quae exstant Romae, maior pars apud Fulvium Ursinum

Antwerp, ex officina Plantiniana, 1606.

£3,250

FIRST EDITION thus. 4to. 2 parts in 1 vol.; 1) pp. 8 [iv], 151 engraved plates, pp. [iv], 17 engraved plates lettered A-R. 2) pp. (viii) 88 (vi). Five additional plates from another work. Roman and Italic letter. Finely engraved title-page with figures of ‘Cornucopiae’ on one side ‘Felix antiquitatas’ on the other, intricate early monogram finely stamped below, full-page engraved portrait of the author, 151+17 engraved plates, Plantin’s engraved printer’s device on second title-page, his woodcut printer’s device on final verso, with 5 additional similar engravings at end, ‘Joseph Lauthier’ inscribed at foot of first title-page, armorial bookplate of Oliver Pemberton on pastedown, Patricia A. Milne-Henderson’s booklabel above, armorial bookplate of Henry J.B. Clements of Killadoon, Ireland, on rear pastedown. Light age yellowing, t-p fractionally dusty, the occasional mark or spot. A very good, well margined copy in good contemporary French red morocco gilt, covers bordered with a double gilt rule, gilt central oval formed of leafy sprays, spine gilt ruled in compartments, gilt fleurons at centres, later black morocco labels gilt, extremities and joints a little worn, spine a little rubbed.

First edition of this important collection of portraits from antiquity with the commentary of Johannes Faber and with an additional 17 plates. Fulvio Orsini of Rome, 1529 – 1600 was a renowned antiquarian, collector of books and antiquities, particularly gems and portraits. Orsini published a number of his own ancient portraits, with commentary in his ‘Imagines et elogia virorum illustrium at eruditorum’ (Rome 1570). “Most of our knowledge about Orsini’s collection comes from the work of Dirk Galle (Gallaeus) who visited Rome in 1595 and made drawings of 240 portraits from Roman collections, especially that of Orsini. Galle engraved 151 of these for his own illustrium imagines (published by Plantin, Antwerp 1598), but Orsini was dissatisfied with the publication because it lacked a scholarly commentary. Orsini prepared notes for such a commentary but was unable to complete the work before he died, and the notes were taken over by Johanes Faber, a German physician and botanist to the Pope, who finally issued the commentary for the second edition of the work (Antwerp 1606). This book enlarged with seventeen additional reproductions, became the basic reference work on portrait iconography for two centuries… for this kind of work he (Orsini) is o en characterised today as the ‘father of ancient iconography.’ One of his most influential identifications however was later rejected. He was the first to identify the portrait of Seneca, from a bust in the Farnese collection; later he was proved wrong with the discovery of an inscribed portrait bust of Seneca in 1813.” Nancy Thomson de Grummond. ‘Encyclopedia of the History of Classical Archaeology.’

This work is extra illustrated with five further plates in the same style, unsigned but also probably by Galle and drawn from the Orsisni collection, with the manuscript title, Appendicula Nondam edita. They include a portrait of Pompeius Magnus, broken busts of Aristoteles, Euripides, and inscriptions concerning Menander and Homer.

The Joseph Lauthier autograph on the title is probably that of the Author of the work “Nouvelles Regles Pour Le Jeu De Mail,” published by C. Huguier & A. Cailleau, 1717 and translated into English the same year as ‘New rules for the game of Mail’. The Game of Mail or Pall Mall is one of the precursors of the game of Golf.

BM STC Low Countries 1601-1620 p. 218, G8.

L2366

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PSALTER

Psalterium in quatuor linguis Hebraea, Graeca, Chaldaea, Latina.

Cologne, [Johann Soter for Johann Potken], 1518.

£6,950

Small fol., 144 leaves, a-y6, ç6, &6. Roman, Hebrew, Greek and Ethiopic letters; title within elaborate border with interlacing floral decoration; occasional dust-soiling and marginal foxing, couple of tiny wormholes at foot and, in the first gathering, also to outer margin, old marginal repair to first five leaves, light dampstain at foot of final gathering. A good copy in late seventeenth-century English calf with gilt border; rebacked and restored, a little scuffed; on title, shelfmark and ink stamp of the Royal Society ‘ex dono’ of Henry Howard (1628-1684).

The second book to be printed in liturgical Ethiopic (Ge’ez) and the first polyglot psalter including that language. The editor, Johann Potken (c.1470-c.1525), was also responsible for the previous and earliest appearance of Ge’ez in print with his Alphabetum seu potius Syllabarium chaldaearum, published in Rome with Marcellus Silber in 1513. A Hebraist and clergyman from Cologne, Potken was at the time in the Papal city to serve Leo X. There, he got in touch with the Ethiopic community flourishing around the Church of St Peter of the Abyssinians, learnt Ge’ez from the pilgrim monk Thomas Walda Samuel and cut (or commissioned) an Ethiopic type for Silber, which he later brought back to Cologne and used for this Psalter. Curiously, Potken, the pioneer of Ethiopic printing, incorrectly called this language ‘Chaldea’, an ambiguous term which was commonly used in relation to Aramaic. An earlier polyglot Psalter featuring Arabic and Aramaic in addition to the Hebrew, Greek and Latin text was edited and published by Agostino Giustiniani in Genoa in 1516.

This copy was presented by Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk, to the Royal Society. The gift probably took taken place in 1667 along with donation of large part of the Arundel-Howard family library, including the beautiful manuscript copy of Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia regum Britanniae, later acquired by the British Museum and now BL, MS Arundel 10.

BM STC Ger., 95; Adams, B1371; Brunet, IV, 920; Graesse, V, 469; Darlow & Moule, 1413; Fumagalli, 1243.

L1174a

LATIN, GREEK, HEBREW AND GE’EZ

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LUTHER, Martin

Jena, Donat Richtzenhan et Thomas Rebart (vols 1, 3) and Christian Rödinger & heirs (vols 2, 4), 1557-1579.

£3,750

In 4 vols. Folio: 1): ff. [12], 540, [4]; 2): ff. [6], 603, [1]; 3) ff. [4], 540, [2]; 4): ff. [4], 822, [2]. Predominantly Roman letter, little Italic and Greek; large historiated initials, titles within elaborate border with the symbols of the Evangelists, Christ on the cross with John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony and Luther kneeling, background landscape and castle and their coats of arms; in vols 2-4, full-page portratis of the dedicatees, the Protestant Saxon princes and brothers Johann Frederick II, Johann Wilhelm and Johann Frederick III, continuous chronological diagram on many leaves of vol. 4; lightly age browned, small dampstains occasionally to blank margins, a few leaves lightly foxed. A fine set in contemporary German alum-tawed bevelled pigskin, elaborately blind-tooled with various rolls of palms, Biblical figures and scenes, personifications of virtues, medallion portraits of Roman emperors, floral decoration, central plate with Jael killing Sisera in vol. 1 (Einbanddatenbank, p003434); remains of the eight original clasps, three functioning; minor rubbing and a few small stains; title and shelfmark inked on spine by contemporary and later hands; late seventeenth-century ex libris of Johann Theodor Eckhart ‘Volkholfheimensis p.’ on front pastedown of vol. 1; armorial bookplate of Johann Georg Sigward (1554-1618) on front pastedown of 2 and, dated 1607, on title verso of 3, along with his portrait by Lukas Kilian, dated 1614, on front pastedown; inscription of the Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Pierre de Senones dated 174[0] on titles of 1, 3 and 4 and related shelfmark on verso of front endpaper of all four vols; contemporary German marginalia in De servo arbitrio in vol. 3 and by later hand in commentary on Psalm 127 in 4.

A finely bound complete set of the Latin works by the initiator of the Reformation. With his prolific activity as a religious writer and polemicist, Luther (1483-1546) was one of the fathers of modern German language, but his extensive output in Latin was equally important and influential. This mixed set is formed by the two contemporary Jena editions, published from 1557 onwards. The first comprehensive collection was made in Wittenberg with Melanchthon’ and other Reformed scholars’ contributions and the sponsorship of the Elector of Saxony; yet, the Jean imprints, particularly those of Rödinger and heirs, are considered of better philological quality (Graesse, IV, 300).

The set has an interesting provenance. It first belonged to Johann Georg Sigward (1554-1618), prominent Evangelic theologian and professor in Tubingen, who penned several Latin religious treatises elucidating Lutheran articles of faith, including predestination. Later, it went into the hands of Johann Theodor Eckhart, apparently a pastor in Hofheim, in the area of Frankfurt. In 1740, it was catalogued in the vast Benedictine library of Saint-Pierre de Senones, which was being enlarged by the erudite abbot and Biblical exegete Antoine Augustin Calmet (1672-1757). It may have served for his studies, which won him the esteem of many Protestant theologians and, despite later attacks, of Voltaire, who was a guest in the Senones monastery in the early 1750s.

Not in BM STC Ger. Adams, L1738 (vol. 1), L1747 (vol. 3); Brunet, III, 1240; Graesse, IV, 300 (vols 2 and 4); VD16 ZV 10105, L3424, L3435, L3427.

L2042

LATIN

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BIBLIA

Biblia utriusque Testamenti.

[Geneva], Robert Estienne, 1556-1557.

£65,000

In 2 vols. Fol., ff. [10], 188, 316, [2], 436, 336, 41, [1]. Predominantly Roman letter, some Greek and Hebrew; large printer’s device and decorative head-piece with vine and peasants on title and half-title, a few detailed illustrations, one full-page; title slightly dust-soiled with torn outer lower corner, a few leaves age yellowed, occasional light foxing mainly to margins, small marginal waterstain to final gatherings of vol. 2. A stunning, well-margined copy in exceptional morocco by the King’s binder of Geneva (cf. M. M. Foot, The Henry Davis Gift, pp. 279-285, nos 226-229), elegantly tooled with gilt and painted black border with panel of interlacing ribbons, painted black, and gouges, unpainted, on background powdered with dots, one mask at head and one at foot, some elements carved after gilding; spine similarly tooled, all board edges gilt with horizontal, vertical and diagonal lines, all edges gauffered with gilt floral and grotesque motifs; joints possibly strengthened, a little rubbed at corners; eighteenth-century English annotation on front pastedown of vol. 1, quoting from the 1732 English translation of Calmet’s Dictionnaire historique, critique, chronologique, géographique et littéral de la Bible; c19 stamp of ‘G. W. Oxenham’ on front pastedown of both vols, Magg’s acquisition labels (March 1940) on rear pastedown of vol. 2.

Splendidly bound copy of the fifth edition of the renowned Latin Bible of Robert Estienne (1503-1559). It was the first to include Theodor Beza’s translation and commentaries on the New Testament, following Estienne’s conversion to Calvinism and subsequent move to Geneva. The book retains the detailed woodcut illustrations of the 1540 edition and the Latin version of the Old Testament by Sante Pagnini. Although this was not exactly the first attempt to separate and number biblical verses, the vast influence of the edition made this practice accepted once and for all.

The extraordinarily rich and detailed binding on both volumes can be attributed with certainty to the King’s binder, who was arguably the best in Geneva in the second half of the sixteenth century and probably a Parisian craftsman who emigrated due to unorthodox religious belief (I. Schunke, ‘Die Genfer Einbände in U. Fuggers Bibliothek’, in Die Einbände der Palatina, I, Vatican, 1962, pp. 218-236 and M. M. Foot, ‘The Geneva King’s binder and other 16th-century bindings decorated with masks’, Association International de Bibiliophilie: XXIVe Congrès 2005, pp. 17-29). His elaborate style, influenced by Parisian models, is characterised by lavish gauffering and use of grotesque and bizarre masks (here a sad-looking king and a staring ram) as decorative elements at head and foot of covers, from which the rest of the interlacing decoration usually springs.

BM STC Fr., Supplement, 11; Adams, B 1055 ; Darlow & Moule, 614; Renouard, 87 (‘depuis long-temp fort rare’); Schreiber, 113; Brunet, I, 876; Graesse, I, 394.

K94

LATIN (WITH SOME GREEK AND HEBREW)

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CICERO, Marcus Tullius

Epistole famigliari.

Venice, Paolo Manuzio, 1554-1555.

£1,750

8vo, ff. 319, [1]. Italic letter; large printer’s device on title and, within floral border with putti, on last; occasionally lightly age yellowed, light damp stain to lower gutter of a few central gatherings. A very good copy in contemporary rustic limp vellum, contemporary title inked on spine; pasted stubs from fourteenth-century ms, remains of ties; slightly worn; contemporary ex libris of ‘Pompeo del Capellan’ at foot of final verso and couple of marginalia in his hand; inscriptions, drawings and scribbles, partly faint, by other contemporary hands on front and rear endpapers and flys and formerly on covers.

An interesting copy of the earliest influential Italian translation of a masterpiece of Latin literature, first published by the Aldine press in 1545. The translator, Guido Logli from Reggio, was a man of letters in service of the Farnese family and acted as agent of Paolo Manuzio in contracting the publication of some works of Annibal Caro and Girolamo Ruscelli. This edition is part of the ambitious plan pursued by Paolo Manuzio to provide his readership with the complete works of Cicero not only in Latin, but also the Italian vernacular.

The vast corpus of Ciceronian Epistolae and Orationes was for a long time used as foundation texts in early modern schools. Indeed, this copy bears an inscription of the otherwise unknown ‘Pompeo de’ Capellan’, written in a childish hand and employing Venetian dialect (‘Questo libro siè de mi’). The other inscriptions, scribbles and drawings – some only visible under UV lamp – by Pompeo or slightly later students comprise try-outs of Latin alphabet, a passage from the prayer to Virgin Mary (‘sancta Maria ora pro nobis’) and a formal address for a letter in Italian vernacular (‘Al Mag.co sig.or Manoli amico et come patron mio sempre osser[vantissimo]’). A charming Italian Renaissance school-book.

BM STC It., 179; Adams, C 1985; Graesse, II, 185; Renouard, 161:16; Fontanini, I, 233-234.

ITALIAN

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JESUIT RELATIONS

Nuovi avisi dell’Indie di Portogallo … terza parte.

Venice, Michele Tramezzino, 1562.

£3,750

8vo, pp. [8], 316. Italic letter; large printer’s device on title, floriated initials; small traces of glue at foot of first three leaves, tiny marginal stain to outer upper corner of f. 27. A fine, wide-margined copy in late sixteenth-century limp vellum; yapp edges, early title inked on spine and later gilt on morocco label, pasted stubs from a dictionary or glossary.

First Italian edition of an epistolary account of the Jesuit missions from all over the early modern world, translated from Spanish. It concerns in particular the vast maritime domain of the Portuguese Empire, consisting of numerous strategical harbours on the coasts of Africa, South Asia and South America. This network was instrumental in controlling the trade of spices and precious metals, but offered also safe starting points for Catholic evangelisation. This collection of letters narrates travels to and fro and daily missionary life in Brazil, India, China, Japan and Ethiopia, providing details of the Jesuit activities, including mass conversions, as well as relevant information on local people, flora and fauna. Often, missives are sent to or from the St Paul’s College of Goa, which was established about 1542 by Francis Xavier as the educational and cultural centre of the Jesuit expansion in the East, and housed the first printing press in India from 1556. These letters were highly sought after in secular Europe, often providing the only reliable information available on the political, economic, commercial and social conditions of large and increasingly important part of the globe.

Not in Adams. BM STC It., 349; Alden, 562/16; Sabin, 5640; Borba de Moraes, I, 51; Cordier, Japonica, 47.

L2144

ITALIAN

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STANIHURST, Richard

De Rebus in Hibernia Gestis, libri quattor

Antwerp, Christopher Plantin, 1584.

£2,950

FIRST EDITION, 4to, pp (ii) 3-264 (viii). Roman letter, some Italic, woodcut initials, printer’s device on title page. Light age yellowing, very slight foxing, a good, clean, wide margined copy in mid 19thC olive morocco, spine and edges gilt.

FIRST EDITION of Stanihurst’s interesting and controversial history of Ireland. Opening with a dedicatory epistle to his brother-in-law, Patrick Plunkett, Baron Dunsany, Stanihurst, writing in Latin, gives a detailed description of Ireland’s geographical and enthnological features; one of his aims, he tells Plunkett, is to dispel Ireland’s obscurity and raise continental awareness of the country. The next three chapters narrate the Normans’ invasion of Ireland in 1169 (in support of Diarmait Mac Murchada, the ousted King of Leinster) and their subsequent settlement there, with extended descriptions of the arrival of Richard of Clare, Earl de Pembroke, known as Strongbow. The account ends at the beginning of the 13th century and the accession of King John. One of Stanihurst’s main sources was the 12th-century Welsh historian Giraldus Cambrensis, and the work ends with an annotated appendix of extracts from his Expugnatio Hibernica, from which Stanihurst’s numerous errors, pointed out by later editors, are believed to have derived. Stanihurst positions himself as a descendant of the Norman Irish settlers, rather than a ‘true’ Celtic Irishman, and is credited with coining the term ‘Anglo-Irish’. He was later criticised for his ‘want of sympathy with the native Irish and his prejudiced misrepresentations’ and his ignorance of the Irish language (DNB).

Born in Dublin in 1547, the son of the Recorder of Dublin and Speaker of the Irish Parliament, Stanihurst went to Kilkenny Grammar School and thence to University College Oxford and both Furnivall’s Inn and Lincoln’s Inn. His tutor at Oxford was Edmund Campion, the Jesuit martyr, and Stanihurst accompanied him on research trips for Campion’s own history of Ireland. Raphael Holinshed asked Stanihurst to finish the Irish chapter of his Chronicles, but the result incurred the disapproval of the Privy Council.

Due to political unrest and his association with Campion, Stanihurst was arrested and imprisoned in 1580. On release, he fled to Leiden, known for relative religious tolerance, where he published an innovative – and widely mocked – translation of the Aeneid, attempting to preserve Virgil’s original hexameter scansion. He also worked as an alchemist and advisor in Spain, under Philip II, but never returned to Britain, dying in Brussels in 1618.

BM STC C16  Dutch p. 192. Voet. V 2228A “The work was actually printed at Leiden, but a number of copies received a title page with Plantin’s Antwerp Imprint.”. Shaaber S 292. Adams S 1633. Brunet V 508. “livre peu commun, et qui est recherché en Angleterre.”

L2095

LATIN

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