GLAREAN, Heinrich

ONLY TWO COPIES RECORDED IN THE US

Dodekachordon.

Basel, Heinrich Petri, 1547.

£28,500

FIRST EDITION. Folio. pp. (xx) 470 (vi). Roman letter, some Greek and Italic. Woodcut historiated initials, over 600 fine woodcut tables, extensive printed music and depictions of musical instruments, printer’s device to last. Slight age yellowing, occasional light browning, tiny worm trails to first gathering, heavier to lower margin of 305-308 (one edge repaired), a few small marginal water stains, couple of marginal tears. A very good copy in C16 limp vellum, small cracks to lower cover. Early casemark to first blank, C16 Latin marginalia in places. In folding box. 

Very handsome copy of this uncommon, finely illustrated, seminal book on C16 music theory by the Swiss humanist Heinrich Glarean (1488-1563). Glarean studied philosophy, theology, and mathematics at the University of Cologne, where he befriended Erasmus. He devised the ‘Dodekachordon’ as a compendium of writings on music theory and dozens of compositions by past and present musicians, some of which were commissioned for this purpose. An enormously influential book, the ‘Dodekachordon’ differs from other C16 such works for its size, innovative content, authorship, and intended readership, having been written by a scholar addressing other scholars on music as an intellectual ‘art’, and not by a professional musician for his fellow practitioners. In the first part Glarean discusses early music theories, including Boethius’s, in terms of permutations, tonality, assonance, and dissonance. The second section is devoted to a history of diatonic modes (12 instead of the customary 8) from Gregorian chant to monophony and polyphony, illustrated with tables and music. The final part is concerned with notation, ligatures, measures, and examples of each mode drawn from a variety of compositions. The most important were those by Iosquinus Pratensis in which the Catholic Glarean saw remnants of the pre-Reformation, original state of music as an ‘ars perfecta’. The Council of Trent referred to the ‘Dodekachordon’ during debates concerning the function and uses of music for the Catholic mass, under the guidance of Cardinal Otto Truchsess von Waldburg, to whom Glarean’s book is dedicated. 

The intermittent annotations in this copy provide precious evidence of the way in which Glarean’s contemporaries understood the ‘Dodekachordon’. This reader was probably a professional musician with scholarly interests, who often transliterated Greek into Roman letter for easier perusal. The anonymous reader underlined mentions of Boethius, Valla, Plato, as well as musical instruments of antiquity, but he also added notes on musical practice to theoretical passages. He studied carefully Glarean’s novel descriptions of the Aeolian and Ionian modes, and cross-referenced statements on different pages. The marginalia also include notes on harmonic series, explanatory references on ‘perfect’ and ‘imperfect’ intervals added to Glarean’s scores, the intersections of individual notes in different diatonic modes, and the proportion of musicians’ voices within a composition. 

Pennsylvania and Yale copies only recorded in the US.

BM STC p. 527; Brunet II, 1623: ‘Ouvrage important, où l’auteur a réuni des examples choisis parmi les chefs-d’oeuvre des meilleurs maîtres de son époque’; Graesse III, 92: ‘Ouvrage curieux, dans lequel l’auteur fait connaître en detail combien l’art de musique était déjà perfectionnée au milieu du 16e siècle’; Grove III, 656-7: ‘The third part contains numerous examples from the works of Okeghem, Obrecht, and Josquin des Prés and other musicians of the 15th and 16th centuries, valuable also as specimens of early music printing.’ See L. Lütteken, ‘Theory of Music and Philosophy of Life: The Dodekachordon and the Counter-Reformation’, in Heinrich Glarean’s Books: The Intellectual World of a Sixteenth-Century Musical Humanist, ed. I. Fenlon and I.M. Groote, Cambridge, 2013, pp. 38-46.

K122

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ALMANAC

ONLY TWO FRAGMENTS RECORDED

Almanach für Breslau auf das Jahr 1497.

[Speyer, Peter Drach, 1497.]

£4,750

Single sheet. 20.5 x 27.5 cm, 40 lines. Large Gothic letter, double column. Typographic initials. Light age browning, tiny interlinear and marginal worming, outer edge repaired affecting a few letters, traces of glue (probably used as pastedown), edges backed. Very well-preserved copy, C16 ex-libris of Georg Adam and Ludvig Cunstler, old pencil mark to reverse.

Exceptionally well-preserved fragment comprising the upper section of a very rare, single-sheet almanac printed by Peter Drach of Speyer for the city of Breslau in 1497. This is the second impression, with minor typographic variations, of an edition printed by Drach c. 1496 (ISTC ia00520550). All four extant copies of the two impressions survive in fragmentary form, which is due to the extreme popularity and intense though short-term use of these texts. Conceived for local communities, almanacs condensed into one sheet ‘the table of the days’ of a specific year. They included the phases of the moon in relation to a given city, the liturgical calendar, and days devoted to saints. The second part of this copy contains separate sections for each month, where saint’s days are associated with specific treatments for ailments, including suitable days for ‘good baths’ or blood lettings to body parts, like feet or lungs, where they were not customarily performed. A remarkably uncommon and important ephemeral text.

Evidence of its early provenance is traceable to Lower Silesia. In 1571, this broadsheet was owned by Friar Georg Adam, priest at Lubin but originally from Głogów, two cities situated near Breslau. In 1593, it was still in Germany, according to Ludvig Cunstler’s ex-libris.

Only British Library recorded fragments (2).

GW 01524; C 2282; Einbl 320; VE15 A-441; Pr 3269; BMC III, 711; ISTC ia00520600.

L2316

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JOHN OF DAMASCUS

ART HISTORY FIRST EDITION

Logoi treis apologētikoi pros tous diaballontas tas agias eikonas. [Apology Against Those who Decry Holy Images.]

Rome, apud Stephanum Nicolinum Sabiensem, [1553].

£8,500

EDITIO PRINCEPS. 8vo. ff. 142 unnumbered, 𝛼-𝜎8. Greek letter, in red and black, occasional Roman. Attractive woodcut coat of arms of Cardinal Pietro Carafa in red and ¼ page woodcut of Crucifixion to t-p recto and verso respectively, decorated initial to preface, headpieces throughout. General light yellowing, light foxing to outer margins and heavier to preface, skilful repair to upper outer corner to two ll. not affecting text. A very good, crisp, well-margined copy in contemporary limp vellum, yapp edges, lacking ties, old stain to lower cover. Modern label to front pastedown, ancient illegible stamp to t-p, early ms title and shelfmark to spine.

A very good, crisp, well-margined copy of the editio princeps of John of Damascus’s ‘Apology’ (c. 730), edited by the humanist Nicolaus Majoranus. Born in Syria, then under Muslim rule, John of Damascus (c.675-c.749) had a Christian education imbued with Hellenic influences, and became a monk. His ‘Apology’ played a fundamental role in debates on the justification of the use of sacred images within the Eastern Orthodox Church. The first attack against religious images, seen as impious representations of the ineffable nature of God, was launched by the Byzantine Emperor Leo III in 730. The period of iconoclasm that followed, during which all sorts of spiritual art and artefacts were destroyed and their worshippers prosecuted, continued almost uninterrupted until the reign of Empress Theodora in the early C8. The Second Council of Nicaea in 787 temporarily reinstated the veneration of images; the ‘Apology’ provided an important theoretical foundation. The work argued against the iconoclasts that Christians were allowed to paint images of Christ, saints and biblical figures as a profession of faith, and that such icons could be venerated and honoured (though not worshipped). A major question was the nature of ‘imitation’. On the one hand, iconoclasts declared that images were imperfect ‘copies’ of the perfect, transcendent and ineffable reality of God. On the other hand, the ‘Apology’ argued that artists were guided by the divine hand; they expressed their maker’s closeness to God and the latter’s true, divine and human ‘likeness’ as it had manifested itself with the Incarnation.

Stefano Nicolini moved with his family from Sabbio (Brescia) to Venice in the 1520s. He showed an immediate interest in the printing of Greek texts, from major literary and theological authors to beginners’ manuals to write, read, and speak the language. Between 1529 and 1532, he was in Verona where he printed works by the Greek Church Fathers for the bishop Gian Matteo Giberti. In Rome he worked as ‘Stampatore Apostolico con Privilegio’, as noted in this copy under the arms of Cardinal Carafa. Saved ‘from the darkness of oblivion’, in the words of the editor Nicolaus Majoranus, this edition engaged with contemporary debates on Protestant iconoclasm at the Council of Trent, of which Carafa was a member. In the dedicatory preface, Majoranus hoped that the ‘Apology’ would benefit the Council of Trent as it had that in Nicaea.

Harvard, Brigham Young, and Pennsylvania copies only recorded in the US.

BM STC It. p. 359; Graesse III, 464; USTC 836453. Not in Dibdin or Légrand.

L2680

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GESNER, Conrad

PRINTING AND THE MIND OF MAN

Historiae animalium.

Zurich, Christoph Froschouer, 1551, 1554, 1555, 1558, and 1587.

£47,500

FIRST EDITIONS. 5 volumes, folio. 1) pp. (xl) 1104 (xii); 2) 2 parts in 1. pp. (viii) 110 (ii) 27 (i); 3) pp. (xxxvi) 779 (i); 4) pp. (xl) 1297 (i); 5) 2 parts in 1. ff. (vi) 85, 11. Roman letter, some Italic, Greek, Gothic, and Hebrew. Historiated and decorated initials, over 900 extraordinary woodcut illustrations of animals (full, ½, or ¼ page), printer’s device to titlepages, arms of Holy Roman Emperor and Swiss cities and cut of the creation of Eve to t-p and initial leaf of vol. 1 respectively, portrait of Gesner to t-p verso in vol. 3. General light age yellowing, occasionally small mostly marginal water stains, ink splashes, thumb marks, or foxing. Vol. 1 with tiny marginal worm holes to first few gatherings; age yellowing to last gathering in vol. 2; age yellowing to vol. 5. Fine set of very good, well-margined copies, light scratching and rubbing on covers. early ms title and shelfmark to spines (C19 red morocco label to vol. 2).

1) Very high-quality contemporary (probably Swiss) deerskin over bevelled wooden boards (see BL c66g3), lacking clasps, slightly wormed. Richly blind-tooled, triple fillet, rolls of fleurons to outer and central panels of upper cover; rolls of charming lilies, roses, and fleurons, floral decorations and trefoils to lower. C19 stamp ‘+ 8 III’ to front pastedown, c.1600 ex-libris ‘Sum B: Mariae Virginis in Ruttenbuech’ to t-p.

2) C19 boards. Inscription ‘Leydig 1869’ to first blank, stamps ‘BVT’, ‘Vernaufte Doublette’, and ‘Bonn University’, ex-libris ‘Monasterij Weingartensis An. 1598’, and ‘M: Andreas Cochleus parrochij Sigmaringa me tenet’ all to t-p.

3) Contemporary German pigskin over bevelled wooden boards, lacking clasps. Blind-tooled to three-panel stamp, double fillet. Upper cover with rolls of fleurons to centre, female figures (Spes, Fides, Caritas) and Christ holding a sword, church, and globe (Gratia Christi, Doctor, Ecclesia) to outer panels. Lower with all’antica motif and male and female heads in roundels to outer panel, female figures of vices and virtues to middle and centre, floral centrepiece. C16 inscription ‘NB Hic author numeratur in prohibitos libros primae classis in Cathalogo Iudicii Concilio Tridentino annexi’, and ex-libris ‘Honoratus Abbas in Seon. 1646’ to t-p, occasional early inscriptions throughout.    

4) Contemporary German pigskin over bevelled wooden boards, with ties. Blind-tooled three-panel stamp, triple fillet, rolls of fleurons to outer panel, figures of the Four Evangelists and male heads in roundels to middle and centre, floral centrepiece. C16 ex-libris ‘Joannis Jacobi à Magenburg’ to t-p, ‘[illegible] Staatsbibliothek’ faint stamp to t-p and last blank.

5) Contemporary (probably German) deerskin over bevelled wooden boards, original clasps. Richly blind-tooled stamp (some faded gilt), triple fillet. Alternate rolls of fleurons and all’antica motif, third panel with male heads in roundels, centre with fleurons to corners and arabesque centrepiece, blue fore-edges. Spine a bit cracked, blind-tooled fleurons to compartments. Shelfmark ‘Q II 2’ to first blank, ex-libris ‘Collegij Socis Jesu Nissae’, ‘ex dono Sermi Carolij Episcopi Brix. & Wra:’, ‘Anno 1622’, ‘Catalogo inscriptus C3’ to t-p, stamp ‘Ex Biblioth. Gymnasii Nisseni’ to t-p verso.

Most unusually complete five-volume first edition of this extremely influential compendium of the history of zoology. Conrad Gesner (1516-1565), a Swiss naturalist, studied natural and medical sciences at Lausanne, Montpellier, and Zurich. The ‘Historiae animalium’ is his masterpiece, and was still being consulted by C19 scientists. The first four volumes—on viviparous and oviparous quadrupeds, birds, and aquatic animals, following Aristotle’s classification—were published during Gesner’s lifetime, while vol. 5 on reptiles and scorpions—which is also the rarest—was printed posthumously in 1587. An epitome of all available knowledge on the animal kingdom, the ‘Historiae’ combined fabulous and real animals, literary (proverbs, etymology) and scientific (behaviour, physical features, medical uses) material. On the one hand, it still relied on classical, biblical, folkloric, and religious interpretations of the animal world, some of which caused the volumes to be added to the index of prohibited books at the Council of Trent, as noted by a C16 hand on this copy of vol. 3. On the other hand, the ‘Historiae’ paid greater attention to the analytical observation and representation of animals.

The 900 exquisite woodcuts (here in excellent impression), based on the work of several artists including Gesner, are so detailed that dozens of individual species, like those of the Linnaean order now known as ‘passeriformes’, are immediately recognisable to a modern eye. Some were based on earlier works including the ‘Gart der Gesuntheit’, Olaus Magnus’s ‘Historia’, Peter Martyr’s ‘De orbe novo’, and Dürer’s famous rhinoceros. A few, including the pelican, were a blend of real and literary creatures. Many others were made ‘ad vivum’, either, like the birds of paradise, through Gesner’s memories of exotic animals he had seen at city fairs, or, like the guinea pig, thanks to pictures and live or dried specimens from the cabinets of curiosities of major European naturalists. Among them were John Caius, physician at the Tudor court, and Gisbert Horstius, who owned a garden in Rome with snakes and aquatic animals copied for Gesner by Cornelius Sittardus.

‘Although the ‘Historia Animalium’ does not yet show any recognition of a connexion between different forms of living nature and fails to conform to our modern ideas of biological research, it was a great step forward and remained the most authoritative zoological book between Aristotle and the publication of Ray’s classification of fauna in 1693. It was many times reprinted and […] it remained the standard reference book even as late as Linné and beyond, because neither Linné nor Ray included illustrations. Editions were published in German in 1557-1613, an English abridgment by Topsell in 1607; and Gesner’s unpublished notes on insects formed the basis of Moffet’s ‘Insectorum sive Minimorum Animalium Theatrum’, 1634. Cuviet was one of his greatest admirers and named him the “German Pliny”.’ (‘Printing and the Mind of Man’, 77)

Exceptional owners of these copies were Charles von Habsburg, Archduke of Austria, Bishop of Brixen and Wrocław, who donated vol. 5 to the Jesuit Collegium he founded in Niesse in 1622. The ex-libris of Franz von Leydig (1821-1908), professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at Tübingen, is recorded in vol. 2. In 1875, after publishing major studies on the morphology of human and animal cells and tissues, von Leydig became professor at Bonn, where vol. 2 was recorded in the C19, and later sold as a duplicate. In the C16 and C17, four volumes were for a time in possession of German religious institutions: Rottenbuch Abbey (vol. 1), Weingarten Abbey (vol. 2), Seeon Abbey (vol. 3), and the Jesuit Collegium of Neisse (vol. 5). In the same years, vols 4 and 5 were also privately owned by a priest in Sigmaringen and Johannes Jacob from Magdeburg.

Only 4 complete copies recorded in the US.

Brunet II, 1564: ‘la plus belle et la plus estimée; mais il est difficile d’en trouver des exemplaires bien complets, aver la 5e partie’; Graesse III, 67: ‘la plus belle et la plus recherchée éd.’; BM STC Ger. p. 358; Wellcome I, 2815 (vol. 5 only). See S. Kusukawa, ‘The Sources of Gessner’s Pictures for the Historiae animalium’, Annals of Science 67 (2010), pp. 303-28; Printing and the Mind of Man, 77.

K101

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GRYNAEUS, Simon [with] HUTTICH, Johann

FINE ORIGINAL BINDING

Die New Welt der landschaften vnd insulen.

Strasburg, Georg Ulricher, 1534.

£11,500

FIRST EDITION thus. Folio. ff. (vi), 242 [i.e., 252] (some mispaginated). Gothic letter, double column. Ulricher’s attractive printer’s device on t-p and final leaf. Fine woodcuts of the Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg’s arms and a schema of the celestial orientation of the north pole, woodcut initials throughout. Generally light age browning and foxing, C16 annotation to one upper margin, small marginal hole and tear, the odd marginal thumb mark. A good, crisp, wide-margined copy in original C16 German blindstamped pigskin in ‘monastic binding’ over bevelled wooden boards (clasps lacking), triple fillet border, blind-tooled title, fleurons, small male and female figures and female heads in roundels, joints cracked, C16 ‘U.V.’ inked monogram on rear pastedown.

Very good, finely printed first edition of ‘Die New Welt’, an augmented German translation by Michael Herr of Grynaeus and Huttich’s successful ‘Novus orbis’, published in Basel in 1532. ‘Die New Welt’ reached out to a German-speaking audience passionate about recent geographical discoveries, and is rarer than its Latin source, which featured an additional woodcut map but less text. The first part is an original epitome of major expeditions to the four continents, drawn from early C16 sources. Featured texts include Cadamosto’s travels to the West coast of Africa, Columbus’s arrival to the New World, Vespucci’s sighting of the Antarctic Pole, Marco Polo’s expedition to China, Ludovico de Varthema’s journey to Malay, King Haithon’s travels to Mongolia, and Paolo Giovio’s account of Muscovy. There are abundant references to the mirabilia typical of travel writing, like Prester John, cannibals, curious animals, and mysterious food. The second part is devoted to writings by the Italian historian Peter Martyr. ‘De orbe novo’ is a collection of famous explorations of the New World—including Núñez de Balboa’s discovery of the Pacific Ocean—which Peter Martyr had gathered in the 1490s from official documents and conversations with explorers. ‘De legatione Babylonica’ recounts his travels to Egypt, and is followed by Erasmus Stella’s history of Prussia, which closes the volume.

This rare edition of ‘Die New Welt’, a fascinating compendium of early voyages of exploration, has been preserved in its attractive original binding over wooden boards, in excellent condition. 

Harisse 188; Alden 534/20; VD 16; G 3830; Sabin 34106: ‘less known and much rarer than the original’; Brunet IV, 132; Graesse III, 165. Not in BM STC German.

L2745

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STEPHANUS OF BYZANTIUM [with] POLLUX, Iulius

RARE GIUNTI EDITIONS IN GREEK

Stephanos Peri poleōn [Στέφανος Περὶ πόλεων], Stephanus De urbibus.

Florence, per haeredes Philippi Iuntae, 1521.

(with)

Iouliou Polideykous Onomastikon [Ἰουλίου Πολυδεύκους Ὀνομαστικόν], Iulii Pollucis Onomasticon.

Florence, apud Bernardum iuntam Mense Nouembri, 1520.

£5,250

Folio. 1) ff. 69, (i), a-h8 i6; 2) ff. (viii), 87, (i), AA8 A-L8. Two works in one, separate title to each. Greek letter, double column. First title with 8 lines of early annotations in Greek, occasional early marginalia throughout. Giunti’s very handsome, large printer’s device at end of first work, second with elegant white on black headpiece at beginning of text. Similar initials throughout. Very good copies, crisp and clean, in a typical C17 Macclesfield binding of polished calf, triple border, fleurons at corners, all gilt, edges speckled red.

Fine, handsome, and uncommon editions of two most important ancient works of Greek lexicography. Sixteenth-century editions of Stephanus of Byzantium’s ‘Peri poleōn’ offered an abridged version of the original sixty-book text—entitled ‘Ethnika’ (Ἐθνικά)—fragments of which could be found in the works of other ancient authors like Eustathius, as often highlighted by the anonymous and learned annotator of this copy. The ‘Ethnika’ was a compendium of ethnic names of gentile peoples from places spanning Greece, Asia Minor, Sicily, and Ireland, enriched with material on topography, local history, and mythology drawn from ancient authors. The ‘Onomastikon’, composed by the Greek grammarian Ioulios Polydeukes in the second century AD, is a lexicon of phrases and synonyms in Attic dialect. It is divided by subject, and includes invaluable information on ancient customs, mythology, and everyday life, touching on themes as varied as oracles, poetry, horses, trees, and navigation. The ‘Onomastikon’ is prefaced by a dedication from the Humanist Antonio Francini to Henry VIII’s doctor Thomas Linacre, one of the first scholars of Greek in England and a member of Aldus Manutius’s Venetian Academy.

 Printed by the Giunti of Florence, both editions reprise, with a few layout variations and the addition of fine typographical ornaments, the first impressions published in 1502 by Aldus, who intended ‘Peri poleōn’ and ‘Onomastikon’ to be bound together. The beautiful typeface, usually found in Giunti Greek texts and based on Francesco Griffo’s work, sought to compete with Manutius’s distinctive font, for which he had been granted a papal privilege contested by the Giunti. These rare editions testify to the way in which Pope Leo X resolved this long-standing dispute between the two printers, by conceding a similar privilege to the Giunti as long as they printed in a slightly different style to Aldus’s.

BM STC It. p. 647; Brunet V, 531; Graesse VI, 492: ‘Cette éd. faite sur la première Aldine est beaucoup plus rare. Elle n’a point de préface’; USTC 857538.

BM STC It. p. 531; Dibdin II, 389; Graesse V, 392: ‘Simple réimpr. de l’éd. précéd.’; Brunet IV, 786: ‘Cette édition, assez belle, est une simple réimpression de la précédente’ ; Sander 5828.

L2347

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DE SAINCTES, Claude (ed.).

A RARE SAMMELBAND IN FINE BINDING

Leitourgiai tōn hagiōn paterōn [Λειτουργίαι τῶν ἁγίων πατέρων] (with) Litvrgiae sive Missae Sanctorum Patrum.

Paris, apud Guil. Morelium, 1560.

£4,750

FIRST EDITIONS (some texts in EDITIONES PRINCIPES). Folio. pp. (iv), 179, (i); pp. (x), 212. Two works in one, separate t-p to each. First Greek letter; second, Roman and Italic. Ruled in red throughout. First t-p with Robert Estienne’s caduceus device, second with Guillaume Morel’s (Greek letter ‘theta’ entwined by two serpents, cupid holding a flaming torch sitting on the crossbar), first with C19 marginal stamp of a seminary library, variable age browning throughout. Good, generally uncut copies in contemporary natural morocco, richly gilt central arabesques and corner pieces to cover, edges triple ruled in gilt, brass bosses to covers (two lacking). Spine in seven compartments, gilt ornaments, casemark on paper labels at foot, all edges richly gilt, ‘Missae. SS. Patrum. Iacobi AR Basil. et Chris.’ inked or ink-stamped on fore-edge, almost the same gilt stamped to lower cover. Upper, English style clasp, lower missing. C19 shelfmark on pastedown.

Two rare Greek and Latin editions of the most influential writings of the Church Fathers on Divine Liturgy, which address fundamental theological questions concerning the Eucharist and the rites of the Mass in the Eastern Churches. These editions engaged, through philology and a Humanist return ad fontes, with contemporary debates on orthodox liturgy against the attacks of the Reformation. The principles of transubstantiation and the rites of the Catholic mass, among others, had been questioned by Protestants and recently reaffirmed by the Council of Trent.

 The collection, which contains some editiones principes in Greek, opens with the Antiochene and Byzantine liturgies of St James, Basil the Great, and John Chrysostom. These are accompanied by commentaries on the mystery of the Eucharist (Dionysius the Areopagite), transubstantiation (Justin the Martyr, Gregory of Nyssa, and John of Damascus), the function of the priest’s blessing in the communion (Marcus of Ephesus), and mystical contemplation (Germanus of Constantinople), as well as by responses to early detractors (Nikolaos of Methone and Samon de Gaza). The Latin edition contains additional texts: a preface on the meanings of ‘leitourgia’ and ‘missa’, an interpretation of Nicholas Kabasilas’s writings on liturgy by the Catholic Humanist Gentian Hervetus, translations of Maximus the Confessor’s commentary on the signs of the communion and of Cardinal Bessarion’s observations on the Eucharist, and John Chrysostom’s examination of the rites of the mass, annotated by the theologian Claudius De Sainctes.

 The beautiful text in ‘Grecs du rois’ style is based on the typeface designed by Claude Garamond for Robert Estienne, ‘the King’s printer in Greek’. Although Estienne’s device is present on the title page of the Greek edition, both volumes were printed in the same year by Guillaume Morel, royal typographer since 1555, who had been entrusted with Estienne’s blocks, decorative initials and headers. As stated on the Greek title page, Morel’s editions were originally intended as stand-alone works. This finely printed volume in an elegant binding is an uncommon example of composite copies of these rare texts.

1) USTC 152948; STC French 6. f. 12; 692. f. 6 (2) (impf.). Not in Brunet, Dibdin, Legrand, or Graesse.

2) USTC 404341; Graesse IV, 224; STC French 3395 g. I. Not in Brunet, Dibdin, or Legrand.

L2173

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GUAZZO, Francesco Maria

A FINELY ILLUSTRATED BOOK ON WITCHCRAFT

Compendium Maleficarum.

Milan, ex collegi Ambrosiani typographia, 1626.

£15,000

4to. pp. (xvi), 391, (i). Roman letter with Italic. Charming engraved architectural titlepage with standing figures of St Ambrose and St Barnaba, urns, putti, and arms of the Serbelloni. Typographical headpiece, woodcut initials throughout. 40 delightful ¼ page woodcuts with witches, demons, and depictions of sorcery, some repeated. Intermittent light browning, a few marginal annotations, small tear at 207 not affecting reading. A good, well-margined copy in antique style vellum, yapp edges, printed ex libris of Eric Gruaz on front pastedown.

Attractive copy of this finely illustrated book on witchcraft. This is the second and enlarged edition of the rare original of 1608, and includes a new, most compelling section on exorcism. Francesco Maria Guazzo (1570-1640) was a friar at the Collegium Ambrosianum in Milan, and was known for his successful exorcisms on personalities including Charles III of Lorraine and the German Duke of Julich-Kleve-Berg. The ‘Compendium Maleficarum’ was an epitome of his theoretical and practical knowledge of witchcraft and its manifestations, inspired by previous works on demonology by Michele Psellus and Nicholas Rémy.

Originally made for the 1608 edition, the 40 handsome woodcuts are among the most renowned early modern illustrations of witchcraft. These vivid pictures portray winged devils, assemblies of witches, demonic animals, and sorcery at work, and were influenced not only by the medieval figurative tradition but also by more recent illustrations of the New World, including scenes with cannibals often shown, like some of Guazzo’s witches, roasting children.

The first part of the ‘Compendium’ discusses the nature of imagination and magic, the rituals of witches, their pacts with the devil, and their ‘maleficia’ like apparitions and copulation with demons. The second focuses on a variety of sorcery including soporific poison and rare illnesses. The third part teaches how to recognize demons, witches, and their manifestations, and reveals divine and natural remedies to defeat them, from prayers to blessed tree branches. It is followed by a new section including orations and blessings for the rite of exorcism. The opening dedication to Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni, whose heraldic escutcheon decorates the titlepage, summarises the crucial question of the ‘Compendium’, that demons find their abode in heresy and idolatry.

 Eric Gruaz was a chemist and great book collector, with a fine library of early modern texts on the history of alchemy, religion, magic, sorcery, and occultism.

Caillet II, 4805: ‘Avec beau frontispice en taille douce et un grand nombre de figures sur bois des plus curieuses’; Gaïta 374; BM STC C17 It. p. 417. Not in Brunet, Graesse, or Kraus.

L2661

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EUSEBIUS

Eusebii Pamphilii de euangelica praeparatione

Treviso, Michael Manzolus 12 January, 1480.

£6,500

Folio. 106 unnumbered leaves, a10 b-n8/6 o6 p8, initial and final blanks missing. Roman letter. Small hole not affecting reading to f8, occasional ultra-neat corrections to the text in black ink, almost imperceptible (possibly editorial), occasional typo ‘LIEBR’ for ‘LIBER’ on headers. Faded contemporary annotations to first few leaves. ‘s. 45’ and ‘10 #’ on rear pastedown. A very good, well-margined copy in C18 quarter light brown sheepskin and marbled paper over boards. Spine with gold-tooled single fillet and fleurons. Corners a bit worn, joints cracked.

A remarkably large copy on thick paper of George of Trebizond’s (1396-1486) Latin translation from the Greek of Eusebius’s important work of Christian apologetics, written at the beginning of the fourth century. A disciple of the scholar Pamphilius—hence the name ‘Eusebius Pamphilii’—Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, was an early Christian historian, exegete, and polemicist. His ‘De euangelica praeparatione’ (in Greek, ‘Eusebiou tou Pamphilou Euangelikēs proparaskeuēs’) elicited the interest of George of Trebizond and other Humanists as it argued for the pre-eminence of Judaeo-Christian over Greco-Roman theology, while engaging with the work of historians and philosophers from both sides. As he confutes the religious beliefs of the gentiles, particularly the Greeks, in relation to the Hebrew Scriptures, Eusebius also interprets their pagan ‘errors’ and ‘superstitions’ as an ‘evangelical preparation’—a wisdom deriving from divine revelation before the coming of the Judaic Law.

This second edition, printed by Michael Manzolus, reprises the one published by Nicolaus Jenson in Venice in 1470, the first book using a Roman typeface inspired by Humanist calligraphy. Like Jenson, Manzolus maintained wide margins and blank squares at the beginning of each section to allow ample room for additional illumination. Unlike the previous edition, Manzolus’s was edited by the Humanist scholar Girolamo Bonomi, who praised in verse Eusebius’s work and prepared the table of contents. The volume opens with George of Trebizond’s dedicatory letter to Pope Nicholas V, for whom he had worked as a secretary. There he celebrated his own mastery of Greek, Latin, Christian theology, and classical antiquity, stating that, through his accomplished translation, readers would be able to appreciate Eusebius’s text ‘as in a mirror’.

This fine copy of George of Trebizond’s translation from the Greek of Eusebius’s ‘De euangelica praeparatione’—an extraordinary book where theology, ethnography, and textual interpretation combine effortlessly—is an important testimony to the theoretical and practical achievements of Humanist scholarship.

ISTC ie00121000; Goff E121; Hain 6702; BMC XV VI, 888; GW 9443.

L2372

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KAŠIĆ, Bartolomeo

EXTREMELY RARE CROATIAN RITUAL

Rituale Romanum Urbani VIII. Pont. max. iussu editum illyrica lingua (Ritual Rimski, istomaccen slovinski po Bartolomeu Kassichiu)

Rome, Ex Typographia Sac. Congreg. De Propag. Fide, 1640.

£4,250

FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. (xxxvi), 450, (ii). Text, calendar, and music in red and black Roman letter, in Croat, introductory leaves in Latin. Two titlepages, typographic initials and ornaments. Woodcut on first t-p (Christ, the Apostles, and a quotation from Mark 16:15-18), engraving on second t-p (John the Baptist and Christ). 11 ¼ page woodcuts with scenes of the rites of the sacraments and an exorcism, one repeated. First gathering a bit loose, wholly unpressed and uncut. A good, untouched copy in C20 limp paper wrapper, casemark ‘Illyric’ on spine, text block split, preserved in box.

Extraordinarily rare first edition of the most influential Roman ritual printed in Croat, detailing the liturgical rites to be used in the Latin Church in the Balkans, following Pope Urban VIII’s revisions of 1632. The ‘Ritual Rimski’ includes tables of Catholic feasts, the meaning, form, and rites of the sacraments, psalms for morning and evening services, blessings, and the procedure to follow for exorcisms. It devotes ample sections to liturgical music in the form of antiphonae and litanies accompanying psalms in Croat. The beautiful layout of the ritual, with black and red ink and music notation, is decorated with fine woodcuts. EXTREMELY RARE CROATIAN RITUAL KAŠIĆ, Bartolomeo Rituale Romanum Urbani VIII. Pont. max. iussu editum illyrica lingua (Ritual Rimski, istomaccen slovinski po Bartolomeu Kassichiu) Rome Ex Typographia Sac. Congreg. De Propag. Fide 1640 3950 FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. (xxxvi), 450, (ii). Text, calendar, and music in red and black Roman letter, in Croat, introductory leaves in Latin. Two titlepages, typographic initials and ornaments. Woodcut on first t-p (Christ, the Apostles, and a quotation from Mark 16:15-18), engraving on second t-p (John the Baptist and Christ). 11 ¼ page woodcuts with scenes of the rites of the sacraments and an exorcism, one repeated. First gathering a bit loose, wholly unpressed and uncut. A good, untouched copy in C20 limp paper wrapper, casemark ‘Illyric’ on spine, text block split, preserved in box. Extraordinarily rare first edition of the most influential Roman ritual printed in Croat, detailing the liturgical rites to be used in the Latin Church in the Balkans, following Pope Urban VIII’s revisions of 1632. The ‘Ritual Rimski’ includes tables of Catholic feasts, the meaning, form, and rites of the sacraments, psalms for morning and evening services, blessings, and the procedure to follow for exorcisms. It devotes ample sections to liturgical music in the form of antiphonae and litanies accompanying psalms in Croat. The beautiful layout of the ritual, with black and red ink and music notation, is decorated with fine woodcuts.

The ‘Ritual Rimski’ is the work of Bartolomeo Kašić (1575-1650), a Jesuit scholar who wrote a grammar and dictionary of Croat for the use of Jesuit missionaries in the Ottoman areas of the Balkans. His ‘Ritual’, commissioned by the Society of Jesus, was intended for speakers of ‘Illyrian’, a broad term embracing Slavonic languages used in Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Bosnia, and Dalmatia. In these regions, liturgical rites were carried out in Old Church Slavonic, written in the Glagolitic, Cyrillic, or Roman alphabets, as well as Latin—two languages which had become increasingly obscure to less educated priests and laymen. Kašić’s ‘Ritual’ provided the first version of the revised Roman ritual in an accessible vernacular. Printed in Roman script, it eliminated the archaisms of Old Church Slavonic in favour of a linguistic variety of Croat (the Štokavian) which Kašić believed to be the most widely understood in Illyria. His preface to Urban VIII explains the difficulty of his translation, now considered a milestone in the development of modern-day Croat.

When Kašić’s translation was published by the Society of Jesus as an intentionally cheap book, no Roman rituals had been printed in Croat since Šimun Kožičić’s volume of 1531, written in Glagolitic and strongly influenced by Old Church Slavonic. Kašić’s version became the standard text in most areas of the Balkans, hence the extraordinary rarity of this unpressed, untouched copy.

Only Yale, Harvard, and Ohio State copies recorded in the US.

Graesse VI, 133: ‘Av. Fig. en bois et mus.’; Kukuljević I, 748; Backer-Sommervogel IV, 937; Šafařik II, 206. Not in BM STC C17 It.

L2614

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